Chapter 22: The Respiratory System
1. Identify the organs forming the respiratory passageway(s) in descending order until the alveoli
2. List and describe several protective mechanisms of the respiratory system.
3. Distinguish between conducting and respiratory zone structures.
4. Describe the makeup of the respiratory membrane, and relate structure to function.
5. Describe the gross structure of the lungs and pleurae.
6. Explain the functional importance of the partial vacuum that exists in the intrapleural space.
7. Relate Boyle’s law to the events of inspiration and expiration.
8. Explain the relative roles of the respiratory muscles and lung elasticity in producing the
volume changes that cause air to flow into and out of the lungs.
9. List several physical factors that influence pulmonary ventilation.
10. Explain and compare the various lung volumes and capacities.
11. Define dead space.
12. State Dalton’s law of partial pressures and Henry’s law.
13. Describe how atmospheric and alveolar air differ in composition, and explain these differences.
14. Relate Dalton’s and Henry’s laws to events of external and internal respiration.
15. Describe how oxygen is transported in the blood, and explain how oxygen loading and unloading is
affected by temperature, pH, BPG, and P
16. Describe carbon dioxide transport in the blood.
17. Describe the neural controls of respiration.
18. Compare and contrast the influences of arterial pH, arterial partial pressures of oxygen and carbon
dioxide, lung reflexes, volition, and emotions on respiratory rate and depth.
19. Compare the causes and consequences of chronic bronchitis, emphysema, asthma, tuberculosis, and
I. Overview of the Respiratory System
A. Pulmonary ventilation: movement of air in the lungs ("breathing")
B. External respiration: movement of oxygen and carbon dioxide between lungs and blood
(remember that cellular
respiration refers to the use of oxygen in cellular metabolism)
C. Transport of gases in the blood
E. Other: speech, laughing, crying, smell, pH of body fluids, blood pressure regulation via
angiotensin II pathway (vasoconstriction), lymph and blood movement [venous return]
"respiratory" pump, movement of pee, poop and babies (oh my!), defense against
matter, inactivation of prostaglandins that may have spill into the blood