chap10 - Chapter 10*Most Genes Contain the Information for...

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Chapter 10
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Chapter 14. * Most Genes Contain the  Information for the  Synthesis of a Single  Protein
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Chapter 14. Genotype * The genetic  composition of  an organism * What genes and  what alleles an  organism has. Phenotype * The physical  characteristics of  an organism
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Chapter 14. * Each strand of DNA consists of a  chain of four kinds of nucleotides:  * A, T, G and C * The sequence of the four bases in  the strand is the genetic information
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Chapter 14. * The sequence of nucleotides in a strand of DNA is a code  that is translated into a sequence of amino acids in a protein * As a generalization each gene encodes the information for a  single protein. * Genes code for proteins or in some cases RNA
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Chapter 14. * DNA is in the nucleus but protein  synthesis is in the cytoplasm  therefore 3rd molecule needed =  RNA
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Chapter 14.
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Chapter 14. * RNA is single stranded * RNA has ribose sugar * RNA has uracil in place of  thymine
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Chapter 14.
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Fig. 14-3, p. 217 DNA RNA adenine A NH 2 deoxyribonucleic acid ribonucleic acid adenine A NH 2 N C N C C N nucleotide base HC C N HC N N N C CH N C CH sugar– phosphate backbone guanine G O guanine G O N C N C C NH C NH HC HC N N NH 2 N NH 2 C C N C C cytosine C NH 2 cytosine C NH 2 C C HC N HC N HC C O HC C O N N thymine T O base pair uracil U O C C CH 3 C NH HC NH HC C O HC C O N N DNA has one function: It permanently stores a cell’s genetic information, which is passed to offspring. RNAs have various functions. Some serve as disposable copies of DNA’s genetic message; others are catalytic. Nucleotide bases of DNA Nucleotide bases of RNA Chapter 14.
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Chapter 14. * A cell’s DNA sequence (genes) contains all the information  needed to make the molecules of life * Gene expression * A multistep process including transcription and translation, by  which genetic information encoded by a gene is converted into  a structural or functional part of a cell or body
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Chapter 14. * DNA Provides Instructions for  Protein Synthesis via RNA  Intermediaries *  Cells synthesize three major types of  RNA (Following figure)
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* The gene–enzyme relationship has  been stated to be  one gene–one  polypeptide relationship . * Example: In hemoglobin, each  polypeptide chain is specified by a  separate gene. * Other genes code for RNA but are not  translated to polypeptides; some  genes are involved in controlling other  genes.
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D N A ( T r a n s c r i p t i o n ) M e s s e n g e r R N A T r a n s f e r R N A R i b o s o m a l R N A ( T r a n s l a t i o n ) P r o t e i n Chapter 14.
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* Molecular biology  is the study of  nucleic acids and proteins, and often  focuses on gene expression.
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