chap10 - Chapter 10 Chapter 14 Most Genes Contain the...

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Unformatted text preview: Chapter 10 Chapter 14. * Most Genes Contain the Information for the Synthesis of a Single Protein Chapter 14. Genotype * The genetic composition of an organism * What genes and what alleles an organism has. Phenotype * The physical characteristics of an organism Chapter 14. * Each strand of DNA consists of a chain of four kinds of nucleotides: * A, T, G and C * The sequence of the four bases in the strand is the genetic information Chapter 14. * The sequence of nucleotides in a strand of DNA is a code that is translated into a sequence of amino acids in a protein * As a generalization each gene encodes the information for a single protein. * Genes code for proteins or in some cases RNA Chapter 14. * DNA is in the nucleus but protein synthesis is in the cytoplasm therefore 3rd molecule needed = RNA Chapter 14. Chapter 14. * RNA is single stranded * RNA has ribose sugar * RNA has uracil in place of thymine Chapter 14. Fig. 14-3, p. 217 DNA RNA adenine A NH 2 deoxyribonucleic acid ribonucleic acid adenine A NH 2 N C N C C N nucleotide base HC C N HC N N N C CH N C CH sugar– phosphate backbone guanine G O guanine G O N C N C C NH C NH HC HC N N NH 2 N NH 2 C C N C C cytosine C NH 2 cytosine C NH 2 C C HC N HC N HC C O HC C O N N thymine T O base pair uracil U O C C CH 3 C NH HC NH HC C O HC C O N N DNA has one function: It permanently stores a cell’s genetic information, which is passed to offspring. RNAs have various functions. Some serve as disposable copies of DNA’s genetic message; others are catalytic. Nucleotide bases of DNA Nucleotide bases of RNA Chapter 14. Chapter 14. * A cell’s DNA sequence (genes) contains all the information needed to make the molecules of life * Gene expression * A multistep process including transcription and translation, by which genetic information encoded by a gene is converted into a structural or functional part of a cell or body Chapter 14. * DNA Provides Instructions for Protein Synthesis via RNA Intermediaries * Cells synthesize three major types of RNA (Following figure) * The gene–enzyme relationship has been stated to be one gene–one polypeptide relationship . * Example: In hemoglobin, each polypeptide chain is specified by a separate gene. * Other genes code for RNA but are not translated to polypeptides; some genes are involved in controlling other genes. DN A (Tran scr iption) Me ssen ger RN A Tran sfer RN A Ri bos oma l RN A (Tran slat ion) Pr otei n Chapter 14. * Molecular biology is the study of nucleic acids and proteins, and often focuses on gene expression....
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This note was uploaded on 01/09/2012 for the course BIO 160 taught by Professor Howardhaemmerle during the Winter '12 term at Bellevue College.

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chap10 - Chapter 10 Chapter 14 Most Genes Contain the...

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