Ocean101-Ch03 - 1 National Oceanic and Atmospheric...

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Unformatted text preview: 1 National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration/National Geophysical Data Center National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration/National Geophysical Data Center Some Important Concepts in Some Important Concepts in Chapter 3 Chapter 3 ! Earth Earth ! s Interior s Interior " It ! s hot hot - Radioactive decay; Conduction, convection, radiation " It ! s layered layered - Evidence?; Physical vs. chemical criteria " Density Density = Mass / Volume " Isostasy Isostasy & buoyancy ! Plate Boundaries Plate Boundaries " Divergent Divergent " Convergent Convergent Collisional Subduction " Transform Transform ! Development of Plate Tectonic Development of Plate Tectonic Theory Theory " Catastrophism Catastrophism > Uniformitarianism Uniformitarianism (James Hutton) " Curious coincidences > Continental drift Continental drift (Alfred Wegener) " New technology > SeaFoor spreading SeaFoor spreading (Harry Hess) " Plate tectonics Plate tectonics (J. Tuzo Wilson) " Conrmations: Hotspots Hotspots; Terranes Terranes; Paleomagnetism Paleomagnetism (Vine & Matthews) Earth Earth s Interior s Interior Internal Heat Internal Heat- Heat flow is the driving force behind activity on the surface This heat causes the rock of the mantle to Fow very slowly by convection . Hotter areas of the mantle (shown here in RED) are less dense, and so rise upward , while cooler areas of the mantle (BLUE) are more dense, and sink downward . 2 Sources of Heat Sources of Heat Radiation Heat Transfer / Heat Loss Heat Transfer / Heat Loss Density Density = Mass / Volume = Mass / Volume Earth is density-stratified: Deeper = Denser Earth Is Layered Earth Is Layered- How Do We Know? 3 Direct Physical Evidence of Earth Direct Physical Evidence of Earth s Interior - s Interior - Samples Samples (Remember - Earth Radius = 6400 km) Mines - 3.6 km deep (South Africa) Drill Holes - 12.3 km deep (Russia) Xenoliths - from 176 km deep (Alps) Meteorites (pieces of planetary interiors) Ophiolites (slices of the seaFoor) A mantle xenolith Few and far between; Few and far between; Not from very deep. Not from very deep. Direct Physical Evidence of Earth Direct Physical Evidence of Earth s Interior - s Interior - Ophiolite Ophiolite Sequence Sequence Experimental Studies Experimental Studies The Crusher - UC Riverside Laser Table at UW Geophysical Evidence Geophysical Evidence Size, Mass, Volume Density Heat Flow Magnetic Field Gravity Seismology 4 Gravity Gravity Anomalies Anomalies (reflect density differences) Seismic Tomography - Seismic Tomography - CAT-Scanning a Planet What can What can seismic waves seismic waves tell us?...
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Ocean101-Ch03 - 1 National Oceanic and Atmospheric...

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