Ocean101-Ch06-Part2

Ocean101-Ch06-Part2 - 1 CHAPTER 6 WATER CHAPTER 6...

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Unformatted text preview: 1 CHAPTER 6 - WATER CHAPTER 6 - WATER (continued) (continued) Metric Is Beautiful Metric Is Beautiful 100 ºC 0 ºC Centigrade Centigrade * 212 ºF 32 ºF Fahrenheit Fahrenheit Water Water boils at: boils at: Water Water freezes at: freezes at: *aka the Celsius scale, after its creator, Swedish astronomer Anders Celsius (1742!) Gabriel Fahrenheit, German physicist (who also invented the mercury thermometer), devised his scale in 1714 (so 100ºF = body temperature) Centigrade Temperatures Centigrade Temperatures 30 is hot, 30 is hot, 20 is pleasing; 20 is pleasing; 10 is not, 10 is not, and 0 is freezing. and 0 is freezing. ºF = ( 2 x ºC ) + 30 ºC = ( ºF - 30 ) / 2 Approximation (easy way) ºF = ( 1.8 x ºC ) + 32 ºC = ( ºF - 32 ) / 1.8 Exact formula If you know ºC & want to find ºF: If you know ºF & want to find ºC: The 3 States of Matter The 3 States of Matter Fig. 6.4, p. 125 2 States of Matter & Bond Strength States of Matter & Bond Strength • Gas Gas = Molecules not bonded to one another; move independently. Takes the volume and shape of its container. • Liquid Liquid = Molecules loosely bonded to one another; bonds easily broken, so liquids flow. Volume is fixed, but takes shape of container. • Solid Solid = Molecules strongly bonded to one another; fixed size and shape. Bend or break with applied force. Properties of Water Properties of Water A. A. The water molecule - The water molecule - Ice, Water, Vapor Ice, Water, Vapor B. B. Density & temperature Density & temperature C. C. Heat & temperature Heat & temperature D. D. Changes of state Changes of state E. E. Refraction, Refraction, light, & sound light, & sound A. A. The Water Molecule The Water Molecule • Element Element = A substance composed of identical particles that cannot be chemically broken down into simpler substances (e.g., hydrogen) • Atoms Atoms = The particles that make up elements. Made of protons (p + ), neutrons (n o ), electrons (e – ). • Molecule Molecule = A group of atoms held together by chemical bonds (e.g., O 2 gas) • Compound Compound = A substance that contains 2 or more different elements in fixed proportions (e.g., water = H 2 O) • Ion Ion = A charged particle (e.g., H + or O 2- ) The Water Molecule The Water Molecule º If water weren’t polar, it would freeze at-90ºC (-130ºF) and boil at -68ºC (-90ºF). And it wouldn’t be nearly so good a solvent (dissolver of salts etc). 3 º The Water Molecule The Water Molecule The Water Molecule The Water Molecule (ice in glaciers & polar ice caps) (oceans, rivers, & lakes) (water vapor in the atmosphere) Strongly bonded Loosely bonded Not bonded ! Melting ! ! Evaporation !...
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Ocean101-Ch06-Part2 - 1 CHAPTER 6 WATER CHAPTER 6...

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