Ocean101-Ch06-Part3

Ocean101-Ch06-Part3 - 1 CHAPTER 6 - WATER CHAPTER 6 - WATER...

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Unformatted text preview: 1 CHAPTER 6 - WATER CHAPTER 6 - WATER (Now (Now let let ’s make it salty! s make it salty! ) Outline Outline 1. 1. What What ’s in seawater? s in seawater? 2. 2. Salinity and solutions Salinity and solutions 3. 3. Salinity factors Salinity factors 4. 4. Dissolved gasses Dissolved gasses & the concept of & the concept of pH pH 5. 5. Residence Residence time time 6. 6. Variations in surface seawater Variations in surface seawater 7. 7. S, T, P, and S, T, P, and ! ( ( “the clines the clines ”) 1. 1. What What ’s in Seawater? s in Seawater? (besides the water) (besides the water) • Dissolved Dissolved “salts salts ” • Dissolved gasses Dissolved gasses • Organic molecules Organic molecules • Suspended sediments Suspended sediments • Seawater samples are often collected using a Nansen Nansen bottle bottle . • The bottle is lowered to the depth at which the scientist wants to collect a water sample. • Then a small weight is sent down the line. • The weight hits a trigger, which causes the bottle to flip upside down and also close off at both ends. • The sealed bottle is then hauled up to the surface. Nansen Bottle Seawater Sampling Seawater Sampling See Figs. 6.14&6.15 p. 132 2 Dissolved Substances Dissolved Substances How are “salts” added to and removed from oceans? • Added Added to oceans to oceans : – River input (primarily) – Circulation through mid-ocean ridges – Volcanic eruptions • Removed Removed from ocean water from ocean water : – Salt spray – Recycling through mid-ocean ridges – Biogenic sediments (hard parts, fecal pellets) – Evaporites, adsorption, precipitation See Fig. 6.13, p. 131 What What ’s in Seawater? s in Seawater? • SALINITY (S) SALINITY (S) = Total amount (or concentration) of dissolved inorganic solids in the water • Salinity can expressed as a percentage (%) percentage (%) – If you had 100 pounds of seawater consisting of 96 pounds of water molecules and 4 pounds of dissolved salts, the salinity would be “4.0%” – (Per cent means “parts out of 100 ”) • More commonly, units are per mil per mil (aka parts per parts per thousand thousand ) (‰ or ppt ppt ) – If 1000 pounds of seawater has 960 pounds of water molecules + 40 pounds of dissolved salts " S = “40‰” – Note that 40‰ = 4.0% , because 40 / 1000 = 4 / 100 What What ’s in Seawater? s in Seawater? Salinity varies from place to place and seasonally, but: – “Average” seawater seawater : S ! 35 35 ‰ (3.5%) • Brackish (hyposaline): < 33 ‰ • Hypersaline: > 38 ‰ – “Average” river water river water : S ! 0.1 0.1 ‰ (0.01%) 3 What What ’s in Seawater? s in Seawater? This may not seem like a lot, but there are enough salts in the oceans (50 million billion tons) to cover the planet with a layer of salts >150 meters (~50 stories) thick!...
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This note was uploaded on 01/09/2012 for the course OCEA 101 taught by Professor Gwynethjones during the Winter '12 term at Bellevue College.

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Ocean101-Ch06-Part3 - 1 CHAPTER 6 - WATER CHAPTER 6 - WATER...

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