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Unformatted text preview: 1 Marine Resources Marine Resources • The oceans provide modern society with numerous resources. • These resources include mineral deposits, oil and gas, electrical energy, food from marine animals and plants, transportation, and recreation. • Resources must be properly managed to be sustainable for ourselves and future generations. • Unfortunately, many types of marine resources have been mismanaged and over-exploited, and their future sustainability is uncertain. • Choices we make can help protect marine resources! Fig. 15-CO, p. 346 Fig. 15.2, p. 350 Some Important Concepts Some Important Concepts • Marine resources may be categorized as: 1. 1. Physical resources Physical resources include petroleum and natural gas , which form from the buried remains of marine plankton. This category also includes many kinds of minerals , as well as fresh water extracted from seawater by desalination. 2. 2. Other energy resources Other energy resources include several methods of generating electrical power from waves and currents, wind, tides, and thermal gradients in the oceans. 3. 3. Biological resources Biological resources are marine animals and plants harvested for food and other uses. The commercial fishing industry has fished many commercial fish stocks beyond their maximum sustainable yield. 4. 4. Nonextractive Nonextractive resources resources include use of the oceans for transportation and recreation. • Renewable Renewable resources are replaced by natural processes, while nonrenewable nonrenewable resources are present in fixed amounts and are not replaced (or at least are replaced extremely slowly, much more slowly than humans are extracting and using them). • Laws of the Sea Laws of the Sea govern the rights of countries in using the ocean and its resources. 2 1a. 1a. Petroleum & Natural Gas Petroleum & Natural Gas Petroleum Petroleum (crude oil) and natural gas natural gas pumped from offshore drilling platforms contributes substantially to the world supply of these products. • Offshore drilling currently accounts for ~30% of total world production • This is likely to increase in future… • Deeper ocean to be exploited… Petroleum & Natural Gas Petroleum & Natural Gas Crude oil and gas form from the decomposition and chemical transformation of organic material in marine sediments. They are, literally, FOSSIL FUELS FOSSIL FUELS . The first step in oil formation is for large amounts of plankton to accumulate on the sea floor in areas of low oxygen (so there are few scavengers to consume the accumulating organic matter). The plankton-rich deposits gradually get buried to greater and greater depths, and over time the increasing heat and pressure transform this organic material into crude oil....
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- Winter '12