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Unformatted text preview: Marine Biology
! Chapter 12 = Life in the Ocean Chapter 13 = Pelagic Communities Chapter 14 = Benthic Communities Marine Biology - Part 1 ! ! Unity & Diversity of Life
"We cannot cheat on DNA. We cannot get round photosynthesis. We cannot say I am not going to give a damn about phytoplankton. All these tiny mechanisms provide the preconditions of our planetary life."
Barbara Ward (1973), "Who Speaks for Earth?" Life in the Ocean
" Of environments, Of organisms 2. Distribution of species
" " " " " " " " " Pros & cons of the salty life Limiting factors, Adaptations Photosynthesis, Chemosynthesis Primary productivity, Biomass Biogeochemical cycles Trophic pyramid, Food webs Ecosystems, Communities, Populations Taxonomy, Kingdoms, Phylogeny, Diversity Mass extinctions 3. Energy & Food (or, Energy = Food) 4. Classification & Change 1 1. Classification Schemes
Of environment Of organisms Classification of Marine Environments 1. By light
a) Euphotic b) Disphotic c) Aphotic 1. By mobility
a) Plankton (floaters) b) Nekton (swimmers) c) Benthos (bottom-dwellers) 2. By location
a) Pelagic (the water column) b) Benthic ( the bottom) 2. By habitat
a) Pelagic b) Benthic 3. By feeding
a) Autotrophs b) Heterotrophs 4. By origin
a) Bacteria b) Archaea c) Protista d) Fungi e) Plantae f) Animalia Fig. 12.16, p. 285 2 Classification of Marine Organisms
= Autotrophic Fig. 12.22, p. 291 3 Holoplankton, Meroplankton = Heterotrophic Nekton Benthos
Epifauna, Infauna 4 2. Distribution of Species
currently known (14%)
But the vast majority of marine biomass is plankton! ~75% of all land species are insects! If ignore them, ~45% of remaining species are marine. Pros & Cons of the Salty Life Anywhere, need to... Find food, avoid predators, cope w/barriers to movement Marine
+ Lots of water (all life needs H2O) High density of water (harder to maneuver) Why so few marine species? Environment stable (less pressure to adapt ! diversify) Low T (! slows chemical reactions, incl. metabolism) currently known (~2000 new species discovered each year) Limiting factor = A physical or biological necessity whose presence in inappropriate amounts ( > or < ) limits the normal action of the organism Adaptations for living in the ocean Limiting Factors
Light Temperature Salinity Dissolved gasses Nutrients pH Viscosity Transparency Hydrostatic pressure
Photosynthesis, bioluminescence Size, plumage, metabolism, species plumage, metabolism, species Buoyancy, extraction, diffusion, osmosis extraction, diffusion, osmosis Solubility, extraction, photosynthesis extraction, photosynthesis N, P, Si, Ca, trace elements Si, trace Buffering Size, streamlining streamlining Eyesight, camouflage camouflage Air pockets Tolerance Limits
Tolerance Range Range exists due to variation in population 5 Broad vs. Narrow Limits Tolerance Range Temperature Light Fig. 12.12, p. 280 Fig. 12.10, p. 279 6 Fig. 12.11, p. 279 Table 12.1, p. 281 7 Active Transport Osmosis Diffusion Osmosis Figs. 12.13 & 12.15, pp. 282 & 284 " 5-Minute Write "
Summarize the main points of today's today' lecture. List 3 to 5 questions you have, based on today's lecture. today' What did you find most interesting about today's lecture? today' How was the lecture relevant to you? Fig. 12.14, p. 283 8 ...
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This note was uploaded on 01/09/2012 for the course OCEA 101 taught by Professor Gwynethjones during the Winter '12 term at Bellevue College.
- Winter '12