Ocean101-MarineBiol-Part4

Ocean101-MarineBiol-Part4 - 1 Marine Biology - Part 4 The...

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Unformatted text preview: 1 Marine Biology - Part 4 The Benthos Some Benthic Communities Some Benthic Communities 1. 1. Rocky intertidal community Rocky intertidal community 2. 2. Sandy/cobble beach community Sandy/cobble beach community 3. 3. Salt marsh & estuary community Salt marsh & estuary community 4. 4. Coral reef community Coral reef community 5. 5. Deep sea Foor community Deep sea Foor community 6. 6. Hydrothermal vent community Hydrothermal vent community 7. 7. Low temperature seep community Low temperature seep community 8. 8. Deep biosphere communities Deep biosphere communities The Benthos The Benthos More than 98% of the known marine species are benthic Most on continental shelf Distribution like that of phytoplankton productivity (why?) 2 How long would your remains remain on the sea foor? Amphipods eating fsh carcasses, 9600 meters deep, Philippine Trench, 1975 Only about 1 day! Limiting Factors & Tolerances Limiting Factors & Tolerances Here, 2 species of barnacle compete for space on rocks in the intertidal zone. The larger one (Balanus) is better at taking over space than the smaller one, but the smaller one (Chthamalus) can survive out of water better than the larger one. The result is that the larger one dominates lower down, while the smaller one dominates higher up. Competition Competition 3 Fig. 14.9, p. 334 1. 1. Rocky Intertidal Community Rocky Intertidal Community The intertidal zone is the area between high and low tides. Pros : Abundant food & light --> Desirable, crowded, high biodiversity Cons : Tough place to live --> Adaptations, zonation Zonation is a distinct feature of this community. Different species arrange themselves into distinct horizontal bands, or zones, within the intertidal zone according to their ability to withstand desiccation (drying out when tide is low) and inundation (when tide is high). Adverse Conditions of Rocky Adverse Conditions of Rocky Intertidal Zones Intertidal Zones & Organism Adaptations to Those Conditions & Organism Adaptations to Those Conditions Bryozoans, barnacles, limpets * Attach to other organism. * Overtake another organism ! s space. Lack of space or attachment sites Snails, limpets, mussels, barnacles * Ability to withdraw into shells to minimize exposure to rapid changes in environment. * Ability to exist in varied conditions for extended periods. Rapid changes in T, S, pH, O 2 Abalones, sea urchins, barnacles * Release of large numbers of eggs/sperm into water column during reproduction. * Long organs to reach others for sexual reproduction. DifFculty Fnding mates for attached species Mussels, sea anemones, sea slugs, octopi, sea stars * irm attachment. Stinging cells. Camouage. Inking response....
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Ocean101-MarineBiol-Part4 - 1 Marine Biology - Part 4 The...

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