L06-07_TeleostsHO11

L06-07_TeleostsHO11 - EEMB 106 Lectures 6-7 Teleosts 1...

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EEMB 106 – Lectures 6-7 – Teleosts 1 Teleosts 4 lineages, believed to have polyphyletic origins Grade Telostomi Class Actinopterygii Subclass Neopterygii Division Teleostei Subdivision Osteoglossomorpha bony tongues Order Osteoglossiformes Subdivision Elopomorpha leptocephalus larvae Order Elopiformes Order Albuliformes Order Anguilliformes Order Saccopharyngiformes Subdivision Otocephala Superorder Clupeomorpha small, shiny planktivores Order Clupeiformes Superorder Ostariophysi Weberian apparatus, Schreckstoff Order Gonorhynchiformes Order Cypriniformes Order Characiformes Order Siluriformes Order Gymnotiformes Subdivision Euteleostei Superorder Protacanthopterygii adipose fin Order Argentiniformes Order Salmoniformes “Neognathi” pike-like Order Esociformes “Neoteleostei” Superorder Stenopterygii deep-sea forms Order Stomiiformes Superorder Ateleopodimorpha deep-sea forms Order Ateleopodiformes Superorder Cyclosquamata deep-sea forms Order Aulopiformes Superorder Scopelomorpha deep-sea forms Order Myctophiformes “Acanthomorpha” true fin spines Superorder Lampriomorpha strange jaws Order Lamprifomes Superorder Polymixiomorpha beardfish Order Polymxiiformes
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EEMB 106 – Lectures 6-7 – Teleosts 2 Superorder Paracanthopterygii Order Percopsiformes cavefish . Order Ophidiiformes eelike fish Order Gadiiformes cod, pollock Order Batrachoidiformes toadfish Order Lophiiformes anglerfish Superorder Acanthopterygii higher spiny-rayed fishes Series Mugilomorpha mullets Order Mugiliformes Series Atherinomorpha silver surface dwellers Order Atheriniformes Order Beloniformes Order Cyprinodontiformes Series Percomorpha Order Stephanoberyciformes deepsea forms Order Beryciformes large eyes Order Zeiformes Order Gasterosteiformes dermal armor plate Order Synbranchiformes freshwater eellike Order Scorpaeniformes spiny heads Order Perciformes coral reefs, tropical lakes 17 Suborders Order Pleuronectiformes flatfish Order Tetraodontiformes fusion/loss of bones
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EEMB 106 – Lectures 6-7 – Teleosts 3 5 major trends in Teleosts ! Reduction in bony elements fewer vertebrae fewer bones in skull fin ray reduction in C, P1, P2 ! Dorsal fin function and position changes ! P1s and P2s change body position ! Caudal fin and swimbladder modifications ! Improvements in feeding apparatus Characters of Teleosts 1) operculum has 4 bones 2) homocercal tail, partly supported by uroneurals, hypurals, and epurals 3) cycloid/ctenoid scales 4) vertebrae are ossified, but lightweight
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L06-07_TeleostsHO11 - EEMB 106 Lectures 6-7 Teleosts 1...

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