L16_Buoyancy_F09

L16_Buoyancy_F09 - Buoyancy - 1 EEMB 106 Buoyancy...

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Buoyancy - 1 EEMB 106 Buoyancy Regulation I. General considerations A. Advantage to depth regulation: - vertical structuring of food, predation, temperature, light, oxygen B. Depth regulation = generating lift because fish will tend to sink i) Specific gravity: Fresh water = 1.0, Salt water = 1.026 ii) scales, bone: 2.0 cartilage: 1.2 other tissues (proteins): 1.05-1.1 fats and oils: 0.9-0.93 iii) overall, bony fishes 1.06-1.09 II. Solutions 1) Lift = lift generated during movement A. How is it done? i) hold your hand out the window of a moving car ii) pectoral fins of sharks/tuna- lifting foils iii) heterocercal tail of sharks iv) some fish hover by driving water down with pectoral fins B. Advantage: can move freely up and down in water column C. Disadvantages: i) high energy expenditure ii) must maintain certain speed of movement D. Works best for: i) cruising specialists ii) bottom dwellers 2) Reduction of dense materials A. How? i) reduced calcification of bones ii) reduction of protein in muscles iii) increase in water B. Who? i) deep sea (meso- and bathypelagic) fishes C. Advantage: lift doesn’t vary with depth D. Disadvantage: restricts activity 3) Storage of fats/oils A. Squalene = special low density hydrocarbon i) stored in large liver ii) mostly found in squaloid sharks B. Wax esters in coelacanths C. Lipids in bones D. Advantage: lift doesn’t vary with depth E. Disadvantages: i) fine-tuning is difficult ii) buoyancy regulation linked to metabolism
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L16_Buoyancy_F09 - Buoyancy - 1 EEMB 106 Buoyancy...

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