L13_school-migration_11COLOR

L13_school-migration_11COLOR - Schooling and Migration...

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Schooling and Migration
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Grouping: Shoals: groups of fish that remain together for social reasons Schools: synchronized, polarized swimming groups Actually, it’s a shoal!
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shoal school
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School Shoal
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How do fish school? 1) visual - conspicuous bar is common on schooling fish
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How do fish school? 2) acoustic - lateral line 3) these systems interact e.g., blinded fish and those without a lateral line have impaired or altered schooling ability http://www.red3d.com/cwr/boids/ Jack smelt sardines
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Structure of schools 1) shape depends on function 2) usually single species, but can be mixed (this also depends on function)
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Potential functions of schools : I) Hydrodynamic advantage II) Avoiding predation III) Foraging advantages IV) Migration
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I) Hydrodynamic advantage: a) theoretical energy savings of 65% b) precise spatial relationships required c) savings do not accrue to all members equally d) new evidence: the Karman gait
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The scientists discovered a previously unknown swimming motion, dubbed the "Karman gait," that exploits the energy of eddies to minimize fish muscle activity. Viewed from below, the bodies of fish swimming in turbulent waters flutter gently, like flags flapping in the breeze, a motion that entails far less muscle activity than swimming through still waters. A Von Karman vortex street downwind from an arctic island near Greenland
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II) Avoiding predation a) Avoidance - requires that the predator has a narrow search field b) Dilution - simple reduction of the per capita probability of mortality - if a group is attacked, individual probability of attack decreases with increasing group size - requires that probability of attack the same for all sized groups, or if attacks increase, they do not increase proportionally with group size
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HELP!!!
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c) Evasion: from swift cooperative behavior 1. When predator finds a group of fish: 1) shift from a shoal to a polarized school
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L13_school-migration_11COLOR - Schooling and Migration...

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