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L21_zoogeography_11COLOR - Zoogeography Zoogeography I....

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Zoogeography
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Zoogeography I. Study of bio/zoogeography A. Two types: 1. Faunistic zoogeography - Delineation and characterization of faunal areas 2. Historical zoogeography - Determine the evolutionary history of these faunas, in a geographical context (Biogeography is a broad field - requires information from: ecology, systematics, evolutionary biology, population biology, genetics, cytology, morphology and anatomy, physiology, paleobiology, the geosciences, and natural history)
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Zoogeography I. Study of bio/zoogeography A. Two goals: 1. Delineation and characterization of faunal areas 2. Determine the evolutionary history of these faunas, in geographical context Textbook devoted mostly to descriptive zoogeography 1. terrestrial/freshwater provinces (~ 41% of all known fishes) 2. marine provinces i) epipelagic, surface dwelling species (~ 1%) ii) deep pelagic species (~ 5%) iii) deep benthic species (~ 6%) iv) littoral/continental shelf species (~ 45%)
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I. Study of bio/zoogeography (continued) B. Distribution of taxa in space explained by: 1. Historical factors : (a) evolutionary origin of a taxon on one part of planet, (b) subsequent spread of that taxon over evolutionary time. Can explain distribution on regional, continental and global scales.
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I. Study of bio/zoogeography (continued) B. Distribution of taxa in space explained by: 1. Historical factors : evolutionary origin of a taxon on one part of planet, subsequent spread of that taxon over evolutionary time. Can explain distribution on regional, continental and global scales. 2. Ecological factors : distribution of abiotic (habitat variables: climate) and biotic (predators, competitors) factors can explain distribution of organisms: distribution on a local scale. We will focus on historical factors initially, and finish with ecological factors
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II. Types of distributions A. Endemic: found only in a particular region. Example: Hawaii, Marquesas have many endemic fishes Hotspots for reef fish endemism in the tropical Indo-Pacific. The "coral triangle" is indicated by shading. Figure from Allen, G.
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II. Types of distributions A. Endemic : found only in a particular region. Example: Hawaii, Marquesas have many endemic fishes B. Circumglobal, circumtropical - widely distributed across globe or tropics
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C. Antitropical - absent from tropics, present at higher latitudes, both sides Antitropical shrimpgoby, Amblyeleotris ogasawarensis: Found in Japan and Australia, not in between Entire families often show this distribution (e.g. hagfishes, eelpouts, snailfishes, and cod), occasionally shown by single species. 4 theories: 1. Lower temps in the past in tropics 2. Move through the tropics in deep water where it is cooler 3. Once lived in tropics but were displaced (competition) 4. Continental drift
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III. Historical processes influencing distributions A. Dispersal 1. Present or ancient distribution occurs in multiple places because group moved into areas it didn’t originally occupy.
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This note was uploaded on 01/10/2012 for the course EEMB 106 taught by Professor Staff during the Spring '08 term at UCSB.

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L21_zoogeography_11COLOR - Zoogeography Zoogeography I....

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