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Unformatted text preview: 10/23/11 Parties Overview Political Parties •  Why do we have par4es? •  What are par4es for? •  Where do we see party influence? •  Evolu4on of the party system. Chapter 12 Nature of Parties •  Poli4cal Par4es contribute to successful democra4c poli4cs: •  The recruit and train leaders, foster poli4cal par4cipa4on, and teach new ci4zens democra4c habits and prac4ces. •  Knit ci4zens and leaders together in electoral and policy coali4ons. •  Allow ci4zens to hold their elected agents collec4vely responsible for what the government does. •  Help channel and constrain poli4cal conflicts, promo4ng their peaceful resolu4on. •  Organize the ac4vi4es of government, facilita4ng the collec4ve ac4on necessary to translate public preferences into public policy. Nature of Parties •  Scholars have proposed a variety of formal defini4ons of poli4cal par4es. •  We could think about par4es in very different ways… •  Burke: A body of men united for promo4ng by their joint endeavors the na4onal interest, upon some par4cular principle in which they are all agreed. •  Downs: A team of men seeking to control the governing apparatus by gaining office in a duly cons4tuted elec4on. 1 10/23/11 The Constitution’s Unwanted Offspring •  The Cons4tu4on makes no men4on of poli4cal par4es. •  In fact, the founders generally considered par4es to be a threat to good government and public order based on their own experiences in government. •  The first American par4es were not really meant to be permanent. Three roles of parties •  Par4es developed into three- part systems connec4ng: •  The party in government, an alliance of current officeholders coopera4ng to shape public policy. •  The party in organiza4on, dedicated to elec4ng the party’s candidates. •  The party in the electorate, composed of those voters who iden4fy with the party and regularly vote for its nominees. Madison on Parties •  “Par4es, under some denomina4ons or another, must always be expected in a government as free as ours. When the individuals belonging to them are intermingled in all par4es of the whole country, they strengthen the union of the whole while they divide every part. Should a state of par4es arise founded on geographical boundaries, and other physical and permanent dis4nc4ons which happen to coincide with them, what is to control these great repulsive masses from awful shocks against each other?” Party in Government •  The first American par4es appeared in Congress. •  Leaders with opposing visions of the na4onal future began compe4ng for legisla4ve votes. •  To win they had to: •  Obtain majority support for their side. •  Arrange a common course of ac4on. •  Get the supporters to show up to vote – mobilizing voters is one of the party’s most important func4ons! 2 10/23/11 Party in Organization •  Organized compe44on for votes in Congress leads directly to organized compe44on for votes in congressional elec4ons. •  Electoral alliances fail if they cannot get enough people to vote for their candidates. •  Par4es are mo4vated to a_ract voters and get them to the polls. •  Historical changes in the process of campaigning: •  Unseemly – campaign on the sly •  Suffrage expanded •  Open cour4ng of votes Party in the Electorate •  Ini4ated new rela4onships between voters and elected leaders. •  Poli4cs was not simply “local.” •  A larger, more dispersed electorate had to be reached. •  Par4es turned to mass communica4on: newspapers, pamphlets, public le_ers, and printed speeches. •  These were designed to excite voters emo4onally so that they would be mo4vated to vote and avoid the free rider problem. •  The networks of leaders and ac4vists assembled to mobilize electoral support became the first party organiza4ons. The Role of Party Labels •  Party labels offer a shorthand cue that keeps vo4ng decisions cheap and simple as long as the labels are informa4ve. •  The more accurately a candidate’s label predicts behavior in office, the more useful it is to voters, and the more it will con4nue to be used. •  But these meanings can change over 4me, and at 4mes they are not very descrip4ve – as with the southern realignment. Two- Party Competition •  Two- party system norm in United States •  Most modern democracies have more than two par4es •  Our system of elec4ons, where only a single winner is chosen by plurality vote, generally reduced compe44on to two. •  People tend to vote strategically. •  Office seekers tend to join one of the two compe44ve par4es rather than pursue office as independents or third- party nominees. •  For these reasons and more we get Duverger’s law. •  An alterna4ve to the American System is one based on propor4onal representa4on. 3 10/23/11 Two- Party Competition •  Popular aspects of third par4es are copied by the major par4es. •  Major par4es, with incen4ves to expand their electoral coali4ons, help maintain the two- party system. •  Erected legal hurdles to gedng on the ballot. The First Party System •  The American party system was born in the first few Congresses as leaders with opposing views on na4onal issues fought to prevail. •  The conflict involved two opposing fac4ons: •  The Hamiltonian Fac4on (Federalists): promoted commercial and manufacturing interests following the Bri4sh economic model. •  The Jefferson and Madison fac4on (An4- Federalists, Democra4c- Republicans): sought to protect the interests of farmers, tradesmen, and agrarian states in general, and supported diploma4c rela4ons with France. Development and Evolution of the Party System •  First party system (1790- 1824): crea4on of na4onal par4es in government. •  Second party system (1824- 1860): basic party organiza4onal structures set. •  Third party system (1860- 1894): Republican party and the rise of party machines. •  Fourth party system (1894- 1932): fall of party machines. •  Filh party system (1932- ?): New Deal coali4on. •  Sixth party system (1950s- 60s?): Southern realignment. The Second Party System •  With the Federalists gone, almost everyone in Congress was a Democra4c- Republican. We call this the era of good feelings. •  Presidents were nominated by congressional caucus. •  Works while there is consensus. •  In 1824 five candidates sought the presidency, William Crawford, Andrew Jackson, John Quincy Adams, Henry Clay, and John C. Calhoun. •  No candidate could secure a majority, so the elec4on was thrown to the House of Representa4ves. •  Clay threw his support and his coali4on behind Adams. Allegedly Adams promised to make him Secretary of State. •  Jackson’s supporters called this the “corrupt bargain.” •  But Jackson won anyways in 1828. 4 10/23/11 The Second Party System •  Jackson’s campaign was the first to leverage regional offices and state organiza4ons that promoted Jackson in towns across the na4on. •  Jackson introduced the na4onal party conven4on. The Second Party System •  Finally, this party system introduced the spoils system, which we’ve already talked about some. •  The spoils system put a much bigger premium on winning – now your livelihood might be at stake! •  It was promoted as a more democra4c way of nomina4ng a presiden4al candidate. •  It served as a prac4cal device for sor4ng out disagreements within par4es. •  Serves as a kind of giant pep rally for the party and gives them a chance to assemble their coali4on for the coming elec4on. Interlude – Party Systems •  asdf The Third Party System •  The Republicans were largely founded as an aboli4onist party, but that was not their only issue. They also appealed to business and commercial interests by promising a protec4ve tariff and a transcon4nental railroad. •  In 1860, they won with Abraham Lincoln. •  This gave Republicans a strong base in the north, and mostly relegated Democrats to the South. 5 10/23/11 The Third Party System •  Party organiza4ons reached the peak of their development during the third party system with the development of the party machines. •  Patronage provided them with the resources they needed to establish las4ng organiza4ons promo4ng party candidates. •  Poli4cians provided the machines with favors and services and the machines provided poli4cians with votes. Tammany Hall •  Boss Tweed was eventually imprisoned and died of pneumonia, but Tammany Hall persisted into the mid 1950s, when it finally ceased to exist. Tammany Hall •  “Boss Tweed” ruled Tammany Hall, New York City’s Democra4c party machine. •  Tammany Hall exerted enormous influence in New York for much of the la_er half of the 19th century. •  Corrup4on was epidemic: Boss Tweed rou4nely gave his friends mul4- million dollar contracts for a month or two of work. The Fourth Party System •  A response to the party machines, widely viewed as corrupt. •  Reformers sought to destroy the machines by depriving them of patronage. •  Progressive ins4tuted civil service reform, the Australian ballot, the direct ballot (ini4a4ve) and other reforms. •  These changes had important consequences. •  Turnout declined due to 4ghter registra4on laws, the Australian ballot, and literacy tests •  Slowly, the poli4cal system shiled away from par4es and towards candidates •  There were no longer material incen4ves for vo4ng. The vo4ng public, once composed largely of the working class, shiled towards the middle class. 6 10/23/11 The Fourth Party System •  Par4es became weaker, but more legi4mate. •  Republicans seized power before the great depression by appealing to economic elites. Erosion of the New Deal Coalition •  Civil Rights issues began to split Northern and Southern Democrats. •  In the 1940s- 50s, it seemed that the Republicans might be the party of civil rights. •  Instead, na4onal Democrats moved aggressively on civil rights, driving the opposi4on into the Republican party and directly causing the Southern Realignment. The Fifth Party System •  A response to the Republican dominance of the fourth party system and the Republican party’s failure to provide compelling solu4ons for the Great Depression. •  FDR forms the new deal coali4on: white segrega4onists, northern African Americans, progressive intellectuals, machine poli4cians, union members, farmers, Catholics, Bap4sts. •  The Republican coali4on, now much smaller, was now upper- income protestants, professionals and residents of small towns in the Midwest and Northeast. The Sixth Party System •  The Southern Realignment completely flipped the electoral map – Democrats were dominant in the south, Republicans dominant in the north. Over the course of several decades, Republicans moved south and Democrats moved north. •  And this brings us up to present day, but this realignment took a very long 4me. 7 10/23/11 Southern Realignment - 1928 •  asdf Southern Realignment - 1936 •  asfd Southern Realignment - 1932 •  asfd Southern Realignment - 1940 •  asdf 8 10/23/11 Southern Realignment - 1944 •  asdf Southern Realignment - 1952 •  asdf Southern Realignment - 1948 •  asdf Southern Realignment - 1956 •  asdf 9 10/23/11 Southern Realignment - 1960 •  asdf Southern Realignment - 1968 •  asdf Southern Realignment - 1964 •  asdf Southern Realignment - 1972 •  asdf 10 10/23/11 Southern Realignment - 1976 •  asdf Southern Realignment - 1984 •  asdf Southern Realignment - 1980 •  asdf Southern Realignment - 1988 •  asdf 11 10/23/11 Southern Realignment - 1992 •  asdf Southern Realignment - 2000 •  asdf Southern Realignment - 1996 •  asdf Southern Realignment - 2004 •  asdf 12 10/23/11 Southern Realignment - 2008 •  asdf The Modern Party System •  What issues do we associate with the modern par4es? •  Republicans: •  •  •  •  •  •  •  The Modern Party System •  Democrats: •  •  •  •  •  •  •  Pro- choice Gay marriage rights Environmental regula4on Universal health care Immigrant amnesty Progressive taxa4on Etc… Pro- life 2nd amendment rights Against gay marriage Oppose higher taxes Social Security reform Stronger immigra4on controls Etc… Polarization •  Over the past few decades, the par4es have become more cohesive and polarized. 13 10/23/11 Polarization •  asdf Polarization •  Why is polariza4on increasing? •  We can think of plenty of possible reasons: •  •  •  •  •  •  Polarization •  asdf Could be related to the Southern Realignment Could be related to gerrymandering Could be that we are measuring polariza4on poorly Could be related to immigra4on Could be related to primaries Could be related to income inequality Polarization •  asdf 14 10/23/11 The Modern Partisan Landscape •  asdf 15 ...
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