Exam 1 - 131.352 - I; I did not discuss this with anyone...

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Unformatted text preview: 131.352 - I; I did not discuss this with anyone other than Dixi ' V__lm_,_ ,A i gnature) ‘ (If you collaborate with another student on this test, it is an automatic “zero” for the testy; This is a take-home test that is due at Friday, February 12th. You may use your notes/{7‘ plus my abbreviated lecture notes on D2L. The test is worth 175 points. LI? Please type or use black/dark blue ink on one side of the page only. You must staple your answers to this sheet. This section is worth 80 points. M 1. Define teleological ethics. (5 points) — total 5 points 2. List two of the six necessary tenets of any ethical theory (5 points each.) Total 10 points. 3. Explain the deterrence justification for legal punishment — total 5 points. 4. Explain what a pacifist believes. — total 5 points 5. Explain what a Living Will means by “health care proxy” (5 points) and “persistant vegetative state” (5 points). — total 10 points. 6. State two problems with Utilitarianism (5 points each.) — total 10 points. 7. Explain how the basic principle of Individual (or Personal) Ethical Egoism is different from the basic principle of Universal Ethical Egoism (5 points.) State one problem with Ethical Egoism (5 points.) -- total 10 points. 8. State one problem with the retributivist justification for legal punishment. — total 5 points. 9. State two of the requirements that I mentioned for true “terrorism”. (10 points.) Give a true example of terrorism (not 9/11/2001 or the 1995 Oklahoma City bombing of the Murrah Building)— and explain Why it fits the definition of terrorism. (5 points.) — total 15 points. 10. Define what “voluntary” means in terms of euthanasia and give a concrete example. — 5 points total. STORY CATHERINE IS DYING SLOWLY OF A DEGENERATIVE DISEASE WITH 6~18 MONTHS TO LIVE. HER HUSBAND JOHN WAS LAID OFF A YEAR AGO AND HIS SEVERANCE PAY/HEALTH INSURANCE HAS RUN OUT. HE HAS BEEN OFFERED A GOOD JOB AT A SMALL COMPANY BUT THAT COMPANY’S HEALTH INSURANCE WILL NOT COVER HER PRE-EXISTING CONDITION. EVEN THOUGH THE SALARY IS VERY GOOD, IT WILL NOT COVER HER MEDICATION BILLS AND NURSING NEEDS AS WELL AS TAKE CAR E OF FAMILY EXPENSES FOR THEM AND THEIR TWO CHILDREN, TOMMY AGE 7 AND BRENDA, AGE 4. SHE IS NOT EVEN ABLE TO TAKE CARE OF HER YOUNGER CHILD ALONE. CATHERINE CAN ONLY GET NATIONAL HEALTH INSURANCE (THROUGH SOCIAL SECURITY’S MEDICAID) IF SHE HAD NO INCOME. AS LONG AS THEY ARE MARRIED, SHE IS INELIGIBLE FOR FINANCIAL HELP WITH MEDICATIONS, HOME HEALTH CARE, CHILD CARE FOR THE 4 YEAR OLD, DOCTORS’ VISITS, ETC. CATHERINE CAN CHOOSE I) ACTIVE EUTHANASIA NOW; 2) DIVORCE WITH HOPE OF MEDICAID; OR 3) KEEP THE STATUS QUO . YOU MUST CONSIDER ALL THREE OF THESE OPTIONS. This Section is worth 95 points. John Stuart Mill — 30 points. Explain his concept of the Benevolent Spectator (5 points) and then use it to analyze the story above (20 points) and state the conclusion and moral action to be taken (5 points.) Jeremy Bentham — 30 points. Use his concept of the Hedonistic Calculus to analyze the story above (25 points), and state the conclusion and moral action to be taken (5 points.) Euthanasia — 15 points. Give a specific and concrete example in Catherine’s situation of 1) active involuntary euthanasia, 2) active voluntary euthanasia, and 3) passive voluntary euthanasia (5 points each.) Aquinas’s Just War Theory — 20 points. Explain Aquinas’s concept of just behavior in war (“Jus in Bella ” —- 2 principles for 5 points each — 10 points). In World War II) did the United States behave justly in its efforts to win the war against Japan: explain why it does or does not fit Thomas Aquinas’s requirements. (10 points) EXTRA CREDIT: Rule Utilitarianism —20 points. Using Catherine’s story above, state first the rule that you would use (5 points) and explain how you determined that rule (5 points), then explain how that rule applies to the situation (5 points), and finally state themoral action that Catherine should take. (5 points). Test 1 Section 1 1. Teleolo ical Ethics- Teleological ethics is based on the results or consequences of / an action. Regardless of the intentions of the actor, the action is moral if the consequences are gOOd. 2. Two tenets of an ethical theor are: it is based on reason not emotion and it \/ Y Y Vexists to deal with conflicts in human interactions. 3. Deterrence justification for legal punishment states legal punishment is morally / justified if the punishment will prevent further crimes by the same individual The argument believes more police and stricter laws can prevent more crimes. Thb punishment is only externally related to breaking the law. at / 4. Pacifists believe that the use of force is never or rarely justified and that violence is always wrong. Pacifists believe that acts of violence lead to more acts of violence. 5. A "health care proxy" is the person whom you designate on your Living Will to /’ make decisions for you in the event you are terminally ill or in a persistent / vegetative state. A “persistent vegetative state" is defined as a patient with brain damage or in a coma and has no awareness after a period of four weeks. 6. One criticism of utilitarianism is that the theory is just too complex. No one can consider all the variables- especially the long—range effects of the short-term / consequences. Not being able to consider all the variables makes utilitarianism /useless. The second reason utilitarianism is criticized is that it requires maximization of overall happiness, which means that we are not allowed to consider our own happiness as somewhat special to us, or even that of our family and friends. 7.1ndividual Ethical Egoism states that ev 0 should do what benefits themselves and nothing else. Universal Ethical Egoism s that everyone should do what is in ’6 his/her best interests. The difference between the two types of Egoism is that Universal Ethical Egoism appeals more to common sense than Individual Ethical \ ’1’, Egoism. One problem with Ethical Egoism is that it is redundant by telling people to do what they are going to do anyways. /8. A problem with retributivist justification for legal punishment is that it can be viewed as approving of revenge. / 9. True Terrorism has four components. Two of the components are, military targets V are not relevant, and there is an irrational choice of victims. An example of true terrorism took place of December 23, 1988. On this day, a 757 airliner Pan Am Flight \/ 103 exploded due to a bomb over Lockerbie, Scotland, killing 270 (259 aboard and 11 town residents. This was true terrorism because there was no military target by Class: 12:30 planting the bomb on this plane and there were no demands made before or after the incident. 10. Voluntary euthanasia refers to a patient being the one making the decision to , end his/her life, this includes if another person causes your death before your / natural death. An example of voluntary euthanasia is when a person decides his/ her ' pain is to much and decides to take their own life by shooting themselves and as a result ofthe shooting they die. Test 1 Section 2 Benevolent Spectator- The Benevolent Spectator refers to wanting to bring about good for everyone; spectator refers to stepping back, removing yourself from the situation emotionally, becoming objective, ignoring your own opinions. You must 02 5, determine the choice, which gives the greatest good to the greatest number of “4 ople and then carry out your decggfi‘believe with using the benevolent Mectawr keeping the status quo w uld be her best choice. If she chooses the route iv“, 0 active euthanasia, she would create great grief for her family because her family fiat/l would want to spend as much time with her as humanly possible and many people feel active euthanasia is against religion. This would cause pain to many more people and it only has a good outcome for herself. If she were to divorce her husband, again her family would face many troubles with the divorce and she would be the only person to benefit. In addition, there is only a chance if she divorces him that she will receive Medicaid, it has no guarantee. If she chooses to keep the status quo, she will at least get to die with her family by her side. This choice does the most good for the greatest number of people although it does not help her situation much. Therefore, she should keep the status quo. Hedonistic Calculus- Intensity is the first thing to consider when using Hedonistic Calculus. It refers to the amount of pleasure or pain of an action. If she chooses active euthanasia, she will experience the most pain from this death and her family will be deeply disappointed and hurt. Divorce would cause the pain to because her It) and her family would experience a lot of pain from the drama and effects of breaking 0% up the family, which comes with a divorce. With duration the best choice would be M active euthanasia because although the pain would be great when it happened it would allow her family to stop worrying about her for a shorter length oftime and her pain would not last long. In the case of certainty, the most certain to cause the least amount of pain would be active euthanasia. Her family would likely heal the fastest with a quick death and so would her pain and suffering. Likewise, active euthanasia would be the best choice using propinguity. This is because her pain would be quick and not prolong her dying state. Her family would be able to deal with it sooner and therefore pleasure would go to both parties faster. With fruitfulness, the choice that would cause an initial pain and then more pain afterward would be if she got a divorce. Her family and her would have to deal with the pain of a divorce long after the divorce and her family would still experience her death far after her death. Again, there is a possibility ofreceiving Medicaid. There is no guarantee and therefore could possibly cause her more pain until her natural if Class: 12:30 death. With purity, her best choice would be to keep the status quo. She would be capable of experiencing pleasure knowing her last days alive will be spent with her family by her side. She also would not have to face the possible consequences of a suicide when it regards religion. Lastly using extent to analyze the situation, the choice would be keeping the status quo. This would keep effect the least number of people and would cause the least pain. Her family would be able to enjoy her last days of life with her._After examining the 7 factors of Hedonistic Calculus, I believe active euthanasia would be her best choice. QQN Euthanasia Catherin would not be able to make the to be result of someone else’s actions. If ts her in his mix of activities, she anasia. 1) With active involuntary euthana51 decision to die and her death would ha Catherine were be shopping and a robber 5 would have died from active involuntary e 2] With active luntary euthanasia, Catherine would be able to choose when she died and 1d result from her actions. This could happen if Catherine decides her pain and suffering is too much and decides to shoot herself causing her death. 3) With passive voluntary euthanasia, Catherine would die of a natural death or side affect of her illness with her being able to make the decision. This would happen if Catherine’s illness worsened and she went into a coma. The doctor decides she is in a vegetative 53% and equipment is keeping her alive. Her Living Will would force them to stop f eding her and take her off the machines, making it her choice and resulting in her death. Aquinas’s lust War Theory jus in Bello requires war to be fought with two restrictions. 1) Proportionately be limited to those military objectives necessary to win. 2) Use discrimination so that the only intentional targets are military and combatants. In WWII, the United States did not act justly in the war against Japan. According to the Ius in Bello, It was wrong to kill innocent civilians and by targeting a target other than the military or combatants. The nuclear bomb killed many innocent people and the war should have and could have been won on the baictlefield. ‘ 7 Extra Credit W ° W6 Using the rule of utilitarianism, lwou determine 'ch route would be the best for the family in regards ether and help therine ‘3 pain reside to the greatest extent. I choose this rule cause, I believe e e one is being affected by Catherine’s illness an st outcome to be the re lt from this situation; she Class: 12:30 will need relief and the family to stay together. The divorce will result in her family breaking apart and she may or may not receive Medicaid. Because ofthis, this is the worst decision because it may or may not decrease pain and is not best for the family. Active euthanasia would result in her pain and her family’s pain suffering from her decision. This also does not satisfy either part of the rule. The last choice is keeping the status quo. With this, she will not feel a decrease in pain but her family will stay together the longest. Because this satisfies the rule the most, I believe keeping the status quo would be the best option. ...
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Exam 1 - 131.352 - I; I did not discuss this with anyone...

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