Exam 2 - Either type or write in ink on one side of paper...

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Unformatted text preview: Either type or write in ink on one side of paper only. STAPLE this cover sheet to our test. This section of the test is worth 120 points. The entire test is worth 200 points. FMHM 1. Ethical relativism is an ethical theory that holds that whatever a group believes (finish the sentence for 5 points.) Why doesn’t Ethical Relativism allow you to judge other cultures? (5 points) — 0 points total. ', State two of Peter Singer’s four assumptions on Famine Relief (5 points each.) Explain how Garrett 6/ Hardin’s “Commons” metaphor would affect and/or change our country’s policies on famine relief (5 g points.) — 5 points total. Y , ,/ List two of John Rawls’ 3 ideas on distributive justice (from his concept of the Veil of Ignorance for 5 points each.) —— 10 points total. _?€7 State the Principle of Equality we discussed in class (5 points). State what the letters “BF OQ” stands for and explain why it is a threat to the Principle of Equality in employment practices — you may use an / example as part of your explanation (5 points.) — 0 points total. Define prejudice as discussed in class (5 points) and give an example of non-moral discrimination currently existing in the USA (5 points.) -- 10 points total. List 2 justifications for non—equal distribution — 5 points total. State and define one of the 3 economic theories we discussed in class (5 points) and explain one way in which a society using that theory totally would encounter problems (5 points.) -- 10 points total. Which economic theory do you prefer for the USA to use and why — yes, this is a thought/Opinion question so do some thinking and be sure to tell WHY (5 points). State a maxim that would be relevant to that economic theory, explaining why it would be relevant (5 points.) — 10 points total. State a hypothetical imperative (5 points) and state who must obey that particular imperative (5 points). — 0 points total. 10. Define strong paternalism (5 points) and weak paternalism (5 points). - 10 points total. 1 1. Define autonomy in terms of making a decision.— 5 points total. Story You, Put, have promised your boss that you will be at work in the small manufacturing plant every day during his 3-week anniversary cruise with his wife (or he would not having been willing to be gone so long.) You are also trained in disaster relief by the Red Cross. One week into the crucial time period, a tornado rips through Fort Smith, Arkansas, leaving massive devastation, 5 dead and lots of wo unded or traumatized victims. Red Cross calls on you to come help with the relief effort. You cannot be two places at once. What is the moral action in this situation? KANT (based on the story on previous page) —— 60 points total. (you may use Kantian self-help sheet and Kantian lecture notes on D2L.) 1. State your maxim (properly!) 5 points. 2. State the First Formulation (as stated in your Kant handout for 5 points). Explain the concepts of Contradition of Nature and Contradiction of the Will (10 points). — 15 points total. 3. Apply the test of the First Formulation to your maxim, including Contradiction of Nature and Contradiction of the Will and state if your maxim passed or failed. 20 points total. 4. State the Second Formulation (as stated in your Kant handout) -— 5 points. 5. Apply the test of the Second Formulation to your maxim and state if your maxim passed or failed um points total. 6. State your conclusion concerning the validity of your maxim and what would be the moral action for Pat to take -- 5 points total. Liberty-limiting Principles — 20 points total. 1. Define one liberty-limiting principle (other than paternalism) and explain what it means (5 points), explain how it is justified (5 points), and give an example (5 points.) Explain your personal position on this liberty-limiting principle (5 points.) -- 20 points total. EXTRA CREDIT — UP TO 25 POINTS. Choose either John Stuart Mill (Benevolent Spectator) or Jeremy Bentham (Hedonistic Calculus) and analyze the story at the top of the page (20 points) and determine what would be the moral action for Pat to take (5 points.) Test 2’Section 1 1. To be ethical or just is right relative to that specific group. Ethical Relativism does not allow you to judge other cultures because different cultures have a diversity of n , views, there is no scientific method for guaranteeing certainty, and different % cultures have different needs such as temperatures, histories, and environments. 2. Two of Peter Singer’s four assumptions on famine relief are: that suffering and death from lack offood, shelter, and medical care is bad, and ifit is in our power to prevent something bad from happening, without thereby sacrificing anything of comparable moral importance, we ought morally to do it. If our country used Hardin’s beliefs then we would change our policies in helping famine countries that . is a result of overpopulation rather than natural disaster or war. This would mean I/ the country would stop helping countries in Africa and other poverity stricken nations by supply food and medical supplies. 3.Two ofjohn Rawl’s ideas on distributive justice are: Everyone should have the most civil liberties compatible with a similar level for everyone. Everyone should V have equal opportunity to compete for jobs and positions in society. 4. The Principle of Equality is treat equal things equally and treat unequal things I// unequal to the degree they are unequal. The letters BFOQ stand for “Bona Fide Occupational Qualification”. BFOQ is a threat to the Principle of Equality in V/ employment practices for those job requirements that are a necessity. For example, tabletop telephones are put together using color-coding wires and therefore a color blind person would not be able to have that job putting them together. 5. Prejudice is the necessary prejudging ofa new situation or experience. It is only V’ wrong when new information does not correct any erroneous judgments. Today in the USA, there is We against many women because many men believe women cannot hold certain ' . “figmaym. ' I 7434/ “77,3’7/"(5’ ' fl 6.Two justifications for non—equal distribution are merit and achievement. Merit [I/ because your effort earned reward and achievement because ofwhat you completed. 7. Socialism is an economic system and a political movement and a social theory which holds that government should own and control most of the nation’s resources _ so that the needs of all the people are met. A problem a country would encounter if p»! socialism were used totally is freedom becomes necessarily trampled on due to abuse of power, economic impossibility, and unforeseen and unintendgl variables 3 among otherthings.7 yéyc . 8. lfl had to choose an economic system for the USA to use, I would Choose libertarianism. l believe the USA was built on the beliefthat everyone wanted freedom from government control and libertarianism is the only system in which / the people’s rights to liberty are not violated. Everyone should always follow the Clz: economic policy oflibertarianism. This would be relevant because it would give everybody freedom and rights to liberty. 9. A hypothetical imperative is a statement or principle that expresses what a a person ought to do but only applies to a person if they want that particular outcome of skill or prudence. 10. Strong paternalism states that it is sometimes proper to intervene in order to better a person even if his/her contrary choices are informed, voluntary, intentional, authentic, etc. Weak paternali is a person's aut omy is ' ' iably restricted to prevent harm to the person caus b that’pefimwhether harm is caused to others. 11.Autonomy is the capacitipfamiiget Wordance with objective morality rather than under the influence of ' 12.Thomas Hobbes describes those in the state of nature, as each person would have a right, or license, to everything in the world. This inevitably leads to conflict, a “war ofall against all” [and thus lives are "solitary, poor, nasty, brutish, and short”). The sovereign must control civil, military, judicial, and ecclesiastical powers. 13.Perfect duties are duties ‘ st be ne. e’Ff-eokduties are duties that should be done. Test 2 Section 2 LAM 1. Everyone must always keep their word. 2.The First Formulation states, “Act only on that maxim that you can will to be universal law." You have just been made King ofthe Universe and part ofyour job description is formulating universal moral law for all rational beings. A) As King, can you will this maxim to be universal moral law? [It doesn't matter if people will like it, ifthey will follow, ifit’s practical or efficient.) B) Is Contradiction of Nature involved? Any maxim that violates truth-telling, promise—keeping, or contract-fulfilling violates Contradiction ofNature and fails the First Formulation. C) Is the Contradiction ofthe Will violated? Is there a situation now or in the future that you can reasonably envision that would cause you to will the opposite ofthe proposed maxim to be universal moral law? If so, then it does not pass the First Formulation. 3. There would never be a Contradiction ofNature because if someone always keeps their word they would be incapable oflying, breaking a promise, or breaking a contract. In addition, the maxim does not have a Contraction to the Will because if V l/ 9/ fl 1/ V, (V i’ i/ / 2/ W 85: 2:30 everyone keeps their word then they would never want to do the opposite ofwhat they said they would do. Because there is no Contradiction of Nature or Contradiction ofthe Will, the maxim passes the First Formulation. 4. The Second Formulation states, “Always treat humanity, whether in your own person or that of another, never simply as a means to an end but always at the same time as an objective end”. 5. If a person always keeps their word they would never use someone as a means to an end because they would always carry through with the actions they said the would do and achieve their responsibilities. The maxim makes a person carry bi/ through with their word and therefore nobody could be used as a means to an end. Because no one is being used as a means to an end, the maxim passes the Second Formulation. 6. Since both formulations passed the maxim, the maxim is valid and can be willed V" as universal law. Because the maxim passed and Pat promised her boss that she ,x" ?' would be at work everyday, Pat must stay at the plant and work instead of going and 5 helping with the reliefwork caused by the tornado. Liberty—limitingPrincijies 1. The Principle of Legal Moralism: a person’s autonomy is justifiably restricted to prevent that person’s immoral behavior, irrespective ofwhether that person’s conduct is harmful or offensive. No public nudity, illegality of fornication, school dress code. Legal Moralism sees it as legitimate to use criminal sanctions to prohibit actions that constitute evils that cause neither harm nor offense. It raises questions [/‘V/ about the degree of moral content that may properly constitute “evil” — whether V/ deviant conduct can be justifiably outlawed in a pluralistic society. This would ’ include “victimless crimes.” There are two justifications for legal moralism: 1) the / majority rule concept ofWestern democracies where if the vast majority believes / that an action is immoral than that beliefis sufficient as community sentiment to I outlaw the action and 2) the beliefin social necessity ofpromoting virtue while discouraging vice for the good of the society. In my opinion, this principle is good and acceptable. It prevents people from committing immoral actions that may be rude and offensive to others. 716mm 5%“ Extra Credit lolin Stuart Mill [Benevolent Spectator) lf Pat chooses to stay and work at the plant, she will be help out her boss and his wife by allowing them to go on the cruise. She would also be helping the employees at the plant because with her there they will not have to work an extra load to make up for her not being there. lf Pat chooses to go to help with the tornado relief, she could potentially help the lots ofpeople wounded make it to the hospital and get them better. She would also being helping the Red Cross because they would have help and a lighter workload in the relief efforts. While she is helping at the site she Class: 12:30 would also potentially be helping, the many people without homes get shelter, food, and water. The choice to go to Fort Smith, Arkansas and help with the tornado relie efforts does the greatest good for the greatest number ofpeople. Therefore, she should help with the tornado relief efforts and the Red Cross. ...
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Exam 2 - Either type or write in ink on one side of paper...

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