Exam 2 - (8353 EXAM #2 Read the directions carefully. I...

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Unformatted text preview: (8353 EXAM #2 Read the directions carefully. I want this in the D2L dropbox (marked “EXAM #2”) no later than midnight Sunday (Sunday night, that is. . .). Give me .pdf, .doc., or .docx files only please. Good luck. NAME: MAHONEY Part 1. True/False. 10 pts. total. Type ‘T’ or ‘F’ at the end of each sentence. \ According to the film, “For the Bible Tells Me So”, Biblical Literalism has been the dominant interpretation of the Bible until recently: T 2. Peter Singer’s Principle is designed to take proximity into account. That is, if the child in the pond is far away from you, you are less obligated to help: F 3. Burton Leiser thinks that homosexuality is unnatural because it is uncommon and abnormal: F 4. Aristotle thinks that it is possible to have one or two virtues, but not any others: F 5. Aristotle thinks that humility is not a virtue: T Part 2. Short Answer. 20 pts. total. Each answer should be no less than 5 sentences long. 1. According to the film, “For the Bible Tells Me So”, what does the word abomination mean? How is an abomination different than the other types of sins in the Bible? Give examples of both types of sin. According to the video watched in class, the definition of the word abomination is anything that goes against ritual or regular practice. An abomination is different from other types of sins in the bible because other sins are explicitly forbidden from happening. An abomination is a sin that could be any of the things listed in the Ten Commandments. Venial sins are very minor. An example would be telling lies or arguing with figmeone. A mortal sin is a bit bigger of one. This includes vicious acts such as murder. ’> 2. Briefly state Peter Singer’s Principle. Also, describe the pond example to me as if I had never heard it before. Peter Singer simply believes if you can prevent bad, without causing damage to yourself, you ought to help. Singer believes that those with money should reduce to a level of marginal utility, and give more to charity. On his website there is a chart to show his audience how much they should give based on how much money they make. The more money you make, the more you should be giving to charity. Singer states that you shouldn’t buy luxury items such as gold jewelry or fancy cars because of how much you could help other with the money you used to buy them instead. His pond example is used to explain that it should not matter how far away a crisis is. You should always still help. Singer poses a question to the audience asking if they were walking by a pond, and you saw a baby drowning in it, would you jump in and save the baby? Everyone obviously says yes that they would, so Singer compares the drowning baby to a starving child in Africa. Most don’t send money to help, and use the excuse that nobody else is, but you would help the baby out of the pong even if nobody else were helping the baby. 3. What is a virtue? How are virtues different than other dispositions and skills? A virtue is an excellence of character; a habitual disposition to think, act, and feel in ways that reflect a moral excellence. Virtues can be any character trait. The ability to dunk a basketball reflects a virtue of athleticism. Virtues are anything that can be considered “good.” Some other dispositions might not count as a virtue if they don’t specifically help anything or do something good. 4. What does supererogatory mean, and what is an example of an act typically thought to be so? Supererogatory is something that is above and beyond what is actually necessary. It is not a bad thing, just something that probably could have not happened and there wouldn’t be a problem Washing the dishes ten times after every mean would be an example of something supererogatoryjlt is not bad to do, but it is really quite a waste of time. 5. What is wisdom, according to Philippa Foot? What is the difference between wisdom and cleverness? '\ inn {\- M example ‘F iv! «Hand «CHVQH ? 2371 Foot claims that wisdom is the combination of both virtues of morality and intellect. It is not merely being smart or all knowing. The wise is the one who thinks with good moral standards in mind, and acts virtuously in all situations. Cleverness is a similar idea but it isn’t the same. Clevemess is quite simply a character trait if ingenuity. ['7 Part 3. The Doctrine of the Mean. 20 pts. total. For each virtue: (I) define it, (2) explain what 2 Vices oppose it (that is, define them, being sure to tell me what excesses and deficiencies compose such vices). l. Courage Courage is the ability to do something in spite of the fact that it is frightening. An excess of courage would be foolhardiness. This could be, for example, a soldier attempting to fight a battle on his own. The deficiency of courage is cowardice. Being scared, and acting out of personal interest or doing what is easiest at the time is cowardly. 2. Honesty (according to Aristotle) Honesty is the telling of the entire truth as best as it can bet stated. Aristotle’s Doctrine of the "' \ Mean states that the exces of this virtue is boastfiilness. On the contrary, the deficiency of it is insincerity. MW (L ism-€09 phage 3. Charity ‘_ 2 Charity is the voluntary giving of help to others. It can be anything but usually money is what people give. Stinginess is the deficiency of charity, and prodigality is the excess of it. w or c. opkotSJL, , I 4. Temperance Temperance is refraining from doing something that is tempting to do. This term is often tied together with alcohol, but temperance can be used to refrain from any vice. The deficiency of temperance could be gluttony. Giving in and eating more than you had planned or need would be a deficiency of temperance. The excess of temperance doesn’t allow one to really do anything. There are ways to find bad in all, and to be overly strict about deciding what should be refused is the excess of temperance. Ll 7 Part 4. Essay. 50 pts. total. Answer Essay #1 & one other of your choice. Each answer should be no less than 300 words. '25 1. Religion seems to be the major cause for the condemnation of homosexuality. It seems that most people just believe it is wrong because they were told that it was their whole life, and for no other reason that it is simply wrong is it so. This makes convincing these people otherwise a very difficult task. If a good point is made, the other might agree that it makes sense, but they still just think it’s wrong and go right back to their stance. When you consider that the bible doesn’t actually mean the same thing as what some interpret it, the arguments against homosexuality fall apart. Bigotry is then the only thing left to do. Burton Leiser’s text disproves all arguments to the claim that homosexuality is “unnatural.” He explains the five ways that homosexuality fits into the conversation of homosexuality, and shows how it makes no sense to call homosexuality unnatural in each sense of the word. The first two are the definitions of the word natural. Homosexuality is not an artificial man made object, and the other definition is purely descriptive so it could be anything that happens and count as being natural. The third argument is that is is abnormal. This is really just dumb because to condemn something for being different is foolish. Many of the greatest things to happen to humanity have been bizarre or included abnormal techniques. The fourth is a thought that organs should not be used for anything besides its specific purpose. The hole found in this is that even for straight people sex is not only used for reproduction. Sex widely regarded as the best way one can show love to a partner. The fifth is the idea that something that is unnatural is something that is generally bad. Something that is natural, though, is often times bad. The infestation of termites is undoubtedly a bad thing, but it is a very natural occurrence in wood. These are all solid holes shot in the ideas against homosexuality, and leave the man condemning homosexual acts acting completely out of bigotry. 22 2. Peter Singer seems to think that an appropriate amount of charity is that which brings one to the level of marginal utility, and wasting money on luxury items is wrong. Asking everyone to give to the level of marginal utility would be a big change. It is simply not plausible that everyone would change that much. Singer addresses this problem and realizes that many will think this is too drastic of a revision to mankind’s moral themes. Nobody actually thinks the same way as Peter Singer. It is true that the citizens of this world could help each other tremendously if this could happen, but its far from happening today. I think that it is a duty of the wealthy to help others through charity, but reduction to the level of marginal utility is a bit much. My family has worked hard for the money we have, and to say that it is only right to give it away isn’t fair. Lot’s of work goes into being successful, and it is not a bad thing to be proud of the money you’ve earned for yourself. I agree with Singer on the disappointment of where a lot of money is going instead. Many people with lots of money use it for the wrong reasons. If a wealthy man gives ten dollars to charity, and then buys a sculpture for 5 million dollars, he is not really being charitable. He probably won’t miss any of the money, but if he had spent all of it on charity, he could have helped so many people. I believe that is everyone’s duty to help give to charity. A lot is not required, but it is important to do What you can do to help out. If your not a wealthy person, or you don’t currently have the money to help, you can still volunteer for a charitable foundation. This is a very helpful thing to do, and man power is needed for every charity. ...
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Exam 2 - (8353 EXAM #2 Read the directions carefully. I...

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