HP2400: Social Psychology Social Perception
Scope of class • What is social perception? • Nonverbal behaviors • Distance • Eye contact • Gestures • Causal attributions • Different approaches to causal attributions • Heider’s theory of attribution • Kelley’s covariation model • The two-step process of attributions • Self-serving attributions • Defensive attributions • Beliefs in a just world 2
• So far we’ve linked construal to social cognition. Now we bring it to the domains of social perception. • Much of social perception is about forming impressions and explaining the world – how we perceive things. From social cognition to social perception 3
• Traditionally, the study of social perception revolves around one question: • What are the ________ behind a behavior? • We want to know why people are the way they are. • Apparently, this tendency runs so deep in our nature that it is almost like a “ ________________ .” • The need to explain people and their behaviors is important because doing so helps us understand and predict our social world. • Tagging a behavior with a cause – any cause – and the world is less random or chaotic in our eyes. Social perception 4
• Social perception focuses a great deal on nonverbal behaviors. • Nonverbal communication: The process by which people communicate, intentionally or unintentionally, without the use of words. • Nonverbal cues serve many functions in communication. 1. Express ________________ or feelings. • “I’m angry” narrowing your eyes, lowering your eyebrows, and setting your mouth in a thin, straight line. 2. Convey an ____________ or a thought. • “I like you” with smiles and extended eye contact. 3. Communicate your ____________ . • As an extrovert, you may present yourself with broad gestures and engage in a lot of colorful body motions. 5 Social perception: Non-verbal behaviors
Communicating without a word: Nonverbal behaviors • Nonverbal behaviors have various aspects, such as: • Eye contact • Gestures Nonverbal Behaviors Distance Eye contact Gestures Facial Expressions Body Movement Possession Decorations 6
Nonverbal behaviors: Eye contact • Eye contact is more than the bonding between two pairs of eyes. • It conveys a great deal of social information. • Lack of interest • Sadness • Anger • In fact, people are so ____________ to eyes, to the point that the feeling of being watched is enough to affect behaviors. 7
Watchful eyes & honesty (Bateson, Nettle, & Roberts, 2006) 8 IV Eye gaze DV honesty
Nonverbal behaviors: Gestures • Gestures are body language; many bodily movements are generally accepted and convey specific information or directions. • Gestures are highly subject to interpretations. • Generational differences • Cultural differences 9
• The psychology of causal attribution is another key part of social perception. • Why do we care about the causes of behaviors?
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- Summer '19
- Fritz Heider