Exam 2 Study Guide

Exam 2 Study Guide - The Sexual Revolution Sexual...

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Unformatted text preview: The Sexual Revolution - Sexual Counterrevolution- Heterosexuality- Homosexuality- Asexuality- Homophobia— Sexual orientation- Deviance- Crime- Social Control- Sociology Test #2 Study Guide After WWll, in 1948, the sexual revolution began. In the 19605 it spread rapidly and children born between this time were known as “baby boomers”. The invention of birth control made sex more convenient and available. The sexual revolution also gave us today’s traditional “double standard” The climate of sexual freedom that had marketed the late 1960’s and 70’s was criticized as evidence of the country’s moral decline. it was a call for a return to “family values” and sexual responsibility. The counterrevolution did not change the idea that people should decide for themselves, but whether for moral reasons or concerns about STDs people began to limit sexual partners. sexual attraction to someone of the opposite sex sexual attraction to someone of the same sex lack of sexual attraction to people of either sex discomfort over close personal interaction with people thought to be gay, lesbian, or bisexual As a product of society, this approach argues that people in a society attach meanings to sexual activity, and these meanings differ from place to place and over time. As a product of biology, research suggests that sexuality is innate and is a part of a person’a brain. Genetics may also influence sexual orientation. The recognized violation of cultural norms ; difference make us see people as an “outsider” A category of deviance, the violation of a society’s formally enacted criminal law; spans a large range from traffic violations to prostitution, sexual assault or murder attempts by society to regulate people’s thoughts and behaviors Criminal Justice system- the organizations - police, courts, and prison officials - that respond to alleged violations of the law Containment Theory- the phycological approach to deviance, Reckless and Dinitz asked teachers to categorize twelve-year old boys into categories of whether they will have run ins with the law or not. The results showed that “good boys” displayed a strong conscience, could handle frustration and identified with cultural norms and values. The “bad boys” had a weaker conscience, had little tolerance for frustration and were out of step with conventional culture. The good boys went on to stay out of trouble because of their personality that controlled deviance Foundations of Deviance - 1. Deviance varies according to cultural norms; no thought or action is inherently deviant, but becomes deviant only in relation to particular norms 2. People become deviant as others define them that way, Everyone violates cultural norms at one time or another, but whether that behavior is criminal depends on how others perceive, define or respond to it. 3. Both norms and the way people define rule breaking involve social power, the law is the means by which powerful people protect their interests. Norms and how we apply them reflect social inequality. Durkheaim’s 4 Essential functions of Deviance: 1. Deviance affirms cultural values and norms; people must prefer some attitudes and behaviors to others. There can be nor good without evil and no justice without crime. 2. Responding to deviance clarifies moral boundaries; by defining people as deviant, people draw a boundary between right and wrong. 3. Responding to deviance brings people together, People typically react to serious deviance with shared outrage and reaffirm the moral ties that bind them. Ex: 9/11 4. Deviance encourages social change; Deviant people push society’s boundaries, suggesting alternatives to the status quo and encouraging change. Ex: Rock and roll was once condemned but is now a mainstream, multibillion dollar industry. Robert Merton- Argued that too much deviance results from particular social arrangements. Specifically, the extent and kind of deviance depend on whether a society provides the means to achieve cultural goals. Strain Theory responses Innovation - Using conventional means (street crime) rather than conventional means (hard work at a “straight” job) to achieve a culturally approved goal (wealth). Ritualism- People who believe that they cannot achieve a goal will stick rigidly to the rules (conventional means) in order to at least feel respectable. Retreatism- A response to the inability to succeed by rejecting both cultural goals and means so that one in effect “drops out”. Ex: alcoholics, drug addicts Rebellion- Like retreatists, rebels such as radical “survivalists” reject both the cultural definition of success and the conventional means of achieving it but go one step further by forming a counterculture supporting alternatives to the existing social order. Labeling Theory- The idea that deviance and conformity result not so much from what people do as from how others respond to those actions Primary Deviance- some norm violations may provoke some reaction from others, but this process has little effect on a person’s self—concept. Secondary Deviance— When a person begins to employ deviant problems created by societal reaction, deviance becomes secondary. Ex: a person labeled as an alcohol abuser establishes primary deviance, but then that person becomes bitter towards people and starts drinking even more, these actions mark a secondary deviance Stigma- A powerfully negative label that greatly changes a person’s self-concept and social identity. Overall, a master status overpowering other dimensions of a person Retrospective labeling - a reinterpretation of the person’s past in light of some present deviance. Ex: after discovering a priest molested a child, people offer comments such as “He always did want to be around young children” Projective labeling - using a deviant identity to predict the person’s future actions. Regarding the priest, people may say “He’s going to keep at it until he’s caught” Medicalization of Deviance - the transformation of moral and legal deviance into a medical condition. Ex: Alcoholics used to be labeled as morally weak people, but studies found alcoholism to be a disease, so alcoholics are “sick” rather than “bad” Differential Association Theory— A person’s tendency toward conformity or deviance depends on the amount of contact with others who encourage or reject conventional behavior. Hirschi’s Control Theory (4 Types of control): 1. Attachment - Strong social attachments encourage conformity. Weak family, peer, and school relationships leave people freer to engage in deviance 2. Opportunity - The greater a person’s access to legitimate opportunity, the greater the advantages of conformity. Someone with little confidence in future success is more likely to drift toward deviance 3. Involvement - Extensive involvement in legitimate activities, such as holding a job, going to school, or playing sports, inhibits deviance. By contrast, people who simply “hang out” waiting for something to happen have the time and energy to engage in deviant behavior. 4. Belief - Strong beliefs in conventional morality and respect for authority figures restrain tendencies toward deviance. By contrast, people with a weak conscious are more open to temptation. Deviance and Power - First, all norms generally reflect the interests of the rich and powerful. People who threaten the wealthy are likely to be labeled as deviant. Secondly, even if their behavior is called into question, the powerful have the resources to resist deviant labels. Third, the widespread belief that norms and laws are “just and good” masks their political character. Mosts of us give little thought to whether the laws themselves are really fair or not. Deviance and Capitalism- Deviant labels are applied to people who interfere with the operation of capitalism. Ex: poor who steal from rich are more likely to be condemned than rich who take advantage of poor, people who cannot or will not work are somehow deviant. White-Collar crime- Corporate crime- Organized crime- Hate crimes- Crimes against the person- Crimes against property- Victimless crime- US Criminal Justice System- Due Process- crime committed by people of high social position in the course of their occupations. This crime does not involve violence, but rather the criminal uses their powerful offices illegally to enrich themselves or others. the illegal actions of a corporation or people acting on its behalf. Ranges from knowingly selling faulty equipment to deliberately polluting the environment. a business supplying illegal goods or services. a criminal act against a person or a person’s property by an offender motivated by racial or other bias violent crimes, crimes that direct violence or the threat of violence against others. Ex: murder, manslaughter, assault, rape, robbery property crimes, crimes that involve theft of money or property belonging to others. Ex: burglary, larceny- theft, car theft, or arson violations of law in which there are no obvious victims, crimes without complaint. Ex: illegal drug use, prostitution, gambling. society’s formal response to crime. includes the police, courts, and the system of punishment and corrections Various protections to any person charged with a crime. Among these are the right to counsel, the right to refuse to testify against oneself, and the right to confront all accusers, as well as freedom from being tried twice for the same crime. Punishment and its’s Four Reasons Retribution - an act of moral vengeance by which society makes the offender suffer as much as the suffering caused by the crime. Society exists in a moral balance, “an eye for an eye" Deterrence - the attempt to discourage criminality through the use of punishment. The belief that people will not break the law if they think that the pain of the punishment will outweigh the pleasure of the crime. Rehabilitation — a program for reforming the offender to prevent later offenses. Providing a controlled setting for offenders to learn to obey rules and conform. Societal Protection - rendering an offender incapable of further offenses temporarily through imprisonment or permanently by execution. Recidivism - later offenses by people previously convicted of crimes. Community Based Corrections correctional programs operating within society at large rather than behind prison walls Probation - a policy of permitting a convicted offender to remain in the community under conditions imposed by a court, including regular supervision. Shock Probation - a policy by which a judge orders a convicted offender to prison for a short time and then suspends the remainder of the sentence in favor of probation. intended to impress the seriousness of the situation while withholding fullscale imprisonment. Parole — a policy of releasing inmates from prison to serve the remainder of their sentences in the local community under the supervision of a parole officer. Race - a socially constructed category of people who share biologically transmitted traits that members of a society consider important. Ethnicity- a shared cultural heritage. An ethnic category based on common ancestors, language, and religion that give them a distinctive social identity. Minority - any category of people distinguished by physical or cultural difference that a society sets apart and subordinates. Can be based on race, ethnicity or both. Social Distance scale - how closely people are willing to interact with members of some category. Students exhibit a trend toward greater social acceptance. People see less difference between various minorities. The terrorist attacks on Sept. 11, 2001, may have reduced social acceptance of Arabs and Muslims. Racism - Scapegoat - Discrimination— the belief that one racial category is innately superior or inferior to another A person or category of people, typically with little power, whom other people unfairly blame for their own troubles.The scapegoat theory holds that prejudice springs from frustration among people who are themselves disadvantaged. unequal treatment of various categories of people. Prejudice refers to attitudes, discrimination is a matter of action. Discrimination can be either positive (providing special advantages) or negative (creating obstacles) and ranges from subtle to extreme Institutional prejudice and discrimination — bias built into the operation of society’s institutions, including schools, hospitals, law enforcement and the workplace. Ex: researchers have shown that banks reject home mortgage applications from minorities at a higher rate - or charge higher rates for the same mortgage - compared to white applicants, even when income and quality of neighborhood are held constant. Pluralism - Assimilation - Miscegenation - Segregation - Genocide - A state in which people of all races and ethnicities are distinct but have equal social standings. People who differ in appearance or social heritage all share resources roughly equally. the process by which minorities gradually adopt patterns of the dominant culture. lnvolves changing styles of dress, values, religion, language, and friends. biological reproduction by partners of different racial categories results in the diminishment of racial traits. the physical and social separation of categories of people. De Jure segregation is segregation by law. De facto segregation is segregation by fact that naturally occurs. the systematic killing of one category of people by another. Racial Backgrounds Native Americans: refers to hundreds of societies including Aleuts, Cherokee, Zuni, Sioux, Mohawk, Aztec, and Inca who first settled the Western Hemisphere. White Anglo-Saxon Protestants: These were not the first people to inhabit the US, but they soon dominated the nation after European settlement began. Most of are English ancestry, but include people from Scotland and Whales. Highest concentration today are in Utah. African Americans: First arrived with European sailors to the New World, but most accounts trace back to a Dutch trading ship bringing African laborers followed by many more ships. They became slaves and were granted know rights as humans and were regarded as property. After slavery was outlawed, they became the face of discrimination and racism. The 20th century brought about dramatic changes and have made great progress. But despite these advances, they are still in the lower social position and are still discriminated against. ...
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This note was uploaded on 01/10/2012 for the course SOC 1113 taught by Professor Webb during the Fall '06 term at Oklahoma State.

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Exam 2 Study Guide - The Sexual Revolution Sexual...

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