Final Study Guide

Final Study Guide - Kingdom Animalia Phylum Porifera 4 r I...

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Unformatted text preview: Kingdom Animalia Phylum Porifera 4 r I 3 Phylum Cnidaria k , Phylum Platyhelminthes in,» M , r" ; (5w m: M Phylum Nematoda Phylum Mollusca S C(W’“ 5 Phylum Annelida Fi‘fiéimazix ; 9W? 3”" *7" I Phylum Afihropoda Subphylum Chelicerata W L < Subphylum Crustacea Subphylum Hexapoda m L Phylum Echinodermata -r . I! Phylum Chordata Subphylum Vertebrata New Material Superclass Gnathostomata Class Chondrichthyes Class Actinopterygii Class Sarcopterygii Class Amphibia Order Gymnophiona Order Urodela Order Anura Class Reptilia Order Testudines Order Squamata Order Crocodilia Class Aves Class Mammalia Infraclass Ornithodelphia lnfraclass Metatheria Infraclass Eutheria Comprehensive Part of Zoo Adaptation: anatomical structure, physiological process, or behavioral trait that evolved by natural selection and improves an organisms ability to survive and leave descendants Aposematic coloration: bright warning colors Bilateral symmetry-applies to animals that can be divided along a sagittal plane into two mirrored portions, right and left halves. Binomial nomenclature= the linnean system of naming species in which the first word is the name of the gunes and the second word is the specific epithet, usually and adjective modifying the name of the genus, both of these words are written in italics Coelom= body cavity Coevolution= evolution of two things at the same time, adapting for each other. Commensalism— one member benefits While the other is not harmed or helped. Diffusion: movement of particle or molecules from an area of high concentration of the particles or molecules to an area of lower concentration Malpighian tubules Mimicry= species who look similar to others for protection but are not the same species Mutualism= both parties benefit. Symbiotic relationship Natural selection: the interactions between organismal character variation and the environment that cause differences in rates of survival and reproduction among varying organisms in a population; leads to evolutionary change if variation is heritable. Three types- stabilizing selection (in the middle), directional selection (favors one side), Disruptive selection (favors both sides but not middle) Pentaradial symmetry: star fish— 5 arms around a center Population: a group of organisms of the same species inhabiting a specific location Radial symmetry— applies to forms that can be divided into similar halves by more than two planes passing through the longitudinal axis Reproductive isolation: isolation of a population that leads to natural selection Speciation= the evolutionary process or event by which new species arise Species= - a group of individuals that interbreed and are reproductiver isolated form other groups Symbiosis= relationships between different organisms that are together Taxon/taxa= naming system for organisms Chapter 1 — 4 1. List the conditions a population must meet in order to maintain Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (no evolution). Are these conditions usually met in a natural population? 1. Large population size 2. Mating is random 3. No migration 4. No mutations 5. No natural selection 2. What were Darwin’s 5 main observations and the inferences he made from them? See figure on page 10. 1. organisms have great potential fertility, which permits exponential growth of populations 2. natural populations normally do not increase exponentially but remain fairly constant in size 3. natural resources are limited 4. variation occurs among organism within populations 5. variation is heritable 3. List the 7 major taxonomic categories in order from broadest to most specific. You should know their relationship to one another? Look at Table 4.1 page 74 it has them listed in bold font and it shows the relationship of the taxonomic categories by using an example. Kindom--—Phylum—-—Class-——Order——-Family———Genus-—-Species 4. What are the advantageous of having a body cavity? A coelom provides a tube within a tube arrangement that allows much greater body flexibility than is possible in animals lacking an internal body cavity. A coelom also provides space for visceral organs and permits greater size and complexity by exposing more cells to surfacing exchange. A fluid filled coelom additionally serves as a hydrostatic skeleton in some forms especially many worms aiding in such activities as movement and burrowing. 5. What are the advantages of cephalization? -Closely associated with bilateral symmetry —Concentration of nervous tissue and sense organs in a head bestows obvious advantages to an animal moving through its environment headfirst. 6. What is the difference between acoelomate, pseudocoelomate and coelomate? Pseudocoelomate= body bacity not lined with peritoneum and not a part of the blood or digestive systems; embryonically derived from the blastocoel Coelomate= Animals that possess a coelom Acoelomate= without a coelom, as in flatwonns Chapter 5 1. How do protozoans obtain oxygen? How do they osmoregulate? Obtain oxygen through: simple diffusion Osmoregulation— through the contractile vacuole 2. What type(s) of locomotion occurs in protozoans? What are cilia and flagella? What is their function? What distinguishes them from each other? Types of locomotion: flagella: Whiplike organelle of locomotion Cilia: mode of locomotion where there are tiny hairs on the outside of the cell Pseudopodial movement in amoebas. 3. How to protozoans maintain homeostasis? Through osmoregulation through the contractile vacuole Chapter 6: 1. What are the advantages of multicellularity? Increased metabolic activity Increased body size Less vulnerability to predation 2. What are the three basic body forms in sponges? How do they vary in complexity? Simple- asconoid-—-syconoid——-leuconoid——~complex 3. How do sponges feed? Which body type is least efficient at feeding? Which body type is most efficient? They filter feed from particles in the water flowing through their canals and are filtered by the choanocytes. , .. Leuconoid is the most efficient and most complex and largest Chapter 7 1. What are cnidocytes, cnida, and nematocysts? What are their functions and how do they work? Cnidocytes — Cnidae ~ Cnida= modified interstitial cell that holds the cnida??? Nematocysts (and how it relates to Cnidocytes} stinging organelle of cnidarians 2. What is a hydrostatic skeleton and how does it work? Hydrostatic Skeleton (and how it works)- a mass of fluid or plastic parenchyma enclosed within a muscular wall to provide the support necessary for antagonistic muscle action. Used in Cnidarian as somersaults, gliding, walking on tentacles, and propulsion. 3. Be able to describe the generalized life cycle of a Cuidarian — see page 126. You should know the difference between a polyp stage and a medusa stage. Polyp vs. Mudnsa- polyp is an asexual stage for cnidarian and medusa is the sexual stage Chapter 8 1. What are the major evolutionary advances seen in the Platyhelminthes over the Cnidaria? Look on page 147. Having head and tail ends to avoid predation. . .Having ventral and dorsal sides. ., Having bilateral symmetry 2. What adaptations do members of the Class Trematoda have that make them suited for a parasitic lifestyle? What is their most common intermediate host? Tegument= outer layer that protects from digestion Suckers or hooks Increased reproductive capacity Well-developed gut tube 3. What is the difference between a definitive host and an intermediate host for parasites? Intermediate host— first host, there can be two intermediate hosts, usually the snail! asexual reproduction. Definitive host— Final hostl’Vertebrates, Where it turns into an adult/sexual reproduction. 4. How are members of the Class Cesteidea specialized for their parasitic life style? Scolex= hooks, suckers Many reproductive units or proglottids 5. Know the basics of the life cycle of Chinese liver fluke, Schistosome fluke. Beef tapeworm. This should include intermediate host(s) and definitive host. How do humans become infected with each of these? Chinese Liver Fluke: use humans as a definitive host and a snail and fish as intermediate hosts Schitosome Fluke: the blood fluke use a snail as an intermediate host and uses the human as a definitive host Beef tapeworm: uses cattle as a definitive host and a human as an intermediate host Common] sheep liver fluke: uses humans or sheep as the definitve host and encysts on aquatic vegetation 6. What worms are found in the: Class Turbellaria= Class Trematoda= all parasitic flukes Class Cestoda= flatworms Chapter 10 1. What types of locomotion are present in the various types of molluscs? Swimming or crawling with the foot Are there any specialized locomotor structures? If so What are they, how do they work? The foot is for movement but the squid has a water vascular system that allows for the propulsion of water that allows for a quick get away 2. What adaptations do cephalopods have for their predatory lifestyle? Include locomotion, sensory, feeding and digestive system. Locomotion: foot formed into a funnel which allows for quick movement Sensory: head well developed with eyes and a radula. .. nervous system, centralized to form a brain Feeding: arms are strong and can handle small prey easily... some have poison glands (octopuses). Di gestion= they have a complete digestive system. 3. What are chromatophores and how are they advantages to cephalopods? Chromatophores— pigment cell, usually in the dermis, in which usually the pigment can be dispersed or concentrated... change the color of the skin 4. What types of animals are found in: Class Gastropoda= snails Class Bivalvia= clams, oysters Class Cephalopoda= squids, octopus, and nautiluses What is different about the shell in each of these 3 classes? Gastropoda= one full shell Bivalvia= has two parts Cephalopod= soft shell Which class has the faster swimmers? Which class has the more intelligent animals? Fastest swimmers are the Cephalopods Most intelligent are the squids in Cephalopods Chapter 11 1. Explain the function of each of the following structures in earthworms Pharynx- the part of the digestive tract between the mouth cavity and the esophagus Crop- region of the esophagus specialized for storing food Gizzard— where mechanical digestion begins Typhlosole— a longitudinal fold projecting into the intestine 2. Describe the function of the clitellum and cocoon in earthworms. What is involved in reproduction in earthworms? Clitellum- the clitellurn is the reproductive system in earthworms. Mucus is secreted from both worms and holds them together. Sperm is then exchanged and travels down the seminal receptacles where it is stored in the seminal grooves. Each worms secretes around its clitellum where a cocoon is formed. The cocoon slides along the body where it picks up sperm and eggs along the way. Fertilization occurs at this point. 3. How does an earthworm move? How does that compare to leech movement? Earthworms move by peristaltic movement. Contraction of circular muscles in the anterior end lengthens the body, thus pushing the anterior end forward where it is anchored by setae; it then contracts longitudinal muscles then shortens the body pulling the posterior end forward. Leeches can move by alternately attaching and detaching these suckers, crawling about in a looping inchworm like motion. 4. What are the advantages of metamerism? Metamerism is the repetition of body segments. This allows for multiple hearts, livers, etc. In earthworms this is important because if part fails or is lost, then the worm can still survive and regenerate. 5. What are reproductive swarms and how are they advantageous? Not a clue. Chapter 12 1. For the following be able to identify the part of the human body where they obtain sexual maturity. Know how humans become infected with each of these. Ascaris lumbricoides— is the most common parasite in the world; it obtains sexual maturity in the small intestine; humans become infected when they digest an egg that can be acquired from dirty fingers, water or food that have been contaminated with feces of an infected human. Pinworms- common in children; sexual maturity in the ileum or last part of the small intestine; transmited by ingesting infectious pinworm eggs and/or anal sex Trichina worm -= Trichinella spiralis— reach sexual maturation in the small intestine; humans become infected when they eat contaminated pork. Chapter 13 1. Briefly describe the contribution of the exoskeleton/ cuticle to the success of arthropods. What is the disadvantage of exoskeleton? The exoskeleton is highly protective without sacrificing mobility. The disadvantage is that when molting occurs, the organism is left highly volatile to attack. 2. What are the most important spiders in the United States that are dangerous to humans? How does their venom work? The Black Widow and the Brown Recluse. The Black Widows venom is neurotoxic, acting on the nervous system. The Brown Recluse’s venom is hemolytic meaning that it destroys the skin and tissue surrounding the bite. 3. What characteristics distinguish the Crustaceans from other arthropods? They are mainly aquatic. They are the only arthropods that have two pairs of antennae. 4. How many tagmata do insects have? 3 What are they? Head, thorax, abdomen. Which tagma bare appendages? Head and thorax 5. What characteristics of insects distinguish them from all other arthropods? 3 sets of legs; 3 tagmata; more species than all other animals combined; usually two pairs of wings 6. Why have insects been so successful? Insects have been so successful because they are found almost everywhere and have adapted to all of these environments; the most adaptive part of the insect is the cuticular exoskeleton. 7. Describe the tracheal system of a typical insect and explain how oxygen gets to the tissues. What are spiracies? Where are spiracles located on the insect? Insects obtain oxygen from the air as it dissolves over a wet membrane, which usually occurs in an internal cavity. Tracheal trunks open to the outside by paired spiracles. Trachae are a single layer of cells with cuticle that is shed during molts. Spiral thickenings of the cuticle called taenidia support the trachea and prevent collapse. Trachae bran into smaller tubes ending in very fine tubules called tracheoles which then branch into a network over the cells. 8. What types of sensory mechanisms are found in insects? Insects can sense mechanical, auditory, chemical, visual, and other stimuli. For visual, insects use ocelli and compound eyes. For auditory, insects can use sensilla, small and hairlike, or tympanic organs sensitive to both sonic or ultrasonic sound. Chapter 14 Terms Ossicles- small separate pieces of echinoderm endoskeleton Dermal branchia- projections of the coelom of seastars that serve in respiration and waste removal Pedicellariae— minute, pincer-like organs on the surface of some echinoderms Water vascular system— system of fluid—filled closed tubes and ducts peculiar to echinoderms used to move tentacles and tube feet that serve variously for clinging, food handling, locomotion, and respiration Madreporite- sieve like structure that is the intake of the water-vascular system of echinoderms Stone canal- leads from the Madreporite to the ring canal around the mouth Ampullae~ dilation at one end of each semicircular canal containing sensory epithelium; muscular vesicle above the tube foot in water-vascular system 1. What is different about how brittle stars move versus sea stars? Sea stars move by attaching and subsequently detaching their tube feet to surfaces. Brittle stars move by moving their arms, not tube feet. Chapter 15 1. What is the defining characteristic of an animal considered to be in the group craniata? Usually vertebrates; bony or cartilaginous skull; well—developed head; muscularized digestive tract; paired kidneys What is the defining characteristic of an animal considered to he in the group agnatha? Lack true jaws or paired appendages What is the defining characteristic of an animal considered to he in the group gnathostomata (spelled correctly this time)? Jaws and (usually) paired appendages What is the defining characteristic of an animal considered to be in the group tetrapoda? Vertebrate animals with four limbs What is the defining characteristic of an animal considered to he in the group amniota? Group of tetrapods that have a terrestrially adapted egg 2. What are the 5 hallmark features of the Phylum Chordata? Notochord Dorsal hollow nerve cord Pharyngeal slits or pouches Endostyle Postanal tail 3. What is the function of the notochord? Chapter 16 Fishes Ampullae of Lorenzinir- electroreceptors that are located on the sharks head. Anadromous= refers to fishes that migrate up streams from the sea to spawn Catadromous= refers to fishes that migrate from fresh water to the ocean to spawn. Caudal peduncle: Claspers= digitiform projection on the medial side of the pelvic fins of male chondrichthians and some placoderms; used as an intermittent organ to transfer sperm to the female reproductive tract. Ctenoid scales= thin, overlapping dermal scales of teleost fishes; exposed posterior margins have fine tooth like spines Cycloid scales== thin overlapping dermal scales of teleost fishes; posterior margins are smooth Diphycercal tail= a tail that tapers to a point, as in lungfishes; vertebral column extends to a tip without upturning Electric 0rgan= organelles that allow animals to create an electric field. Endochondral bone= any bone that develops in and replaces cartilage. Ganoid scales: thick, bony, rhornbic scales of some bony fishes, not overlapping Gill raker= in fish are bony or cartilaginous processes that project from the branchial arch (gill arch) and are involved with filter feeding tiny prey. Hemoglobin= respiratory pigment, oxygen carrier Heterocercal tail = shark tail Homocercal tail= double pointed tail Lamellae= one of the two plates forming a gill in a bivalve mollusk. One of the thing layers of bone laid concentrically around an osteon. .. Any thin, plate like structure Lateral Line= the line that cuts the dorsal and ventral sides of a shark. .. senses low frequency vibrations with mechanoreceptors Mermaid’s Purse= the egg case of sharks where the young grow and develop, looks like a purse Operculum= the gill cover in bony fish; Oviparous= reproduction in which eggs are released by the female; development of offspring occurs outside the maternal body Ovoviviparous= reproduction in which eggs develop within the maternal body without additional nourishment from the parent and hatch within the parent or immediately after laying. Viviparous= reproduction in which eggs develop within the female body which supplies nutritional aid; occurs in therian mammals, many non-avian reptiles and some fishes. Offspring are born as juveniles Placoid Scales: type of scale found in cartilaginous fishes, composed of a basal plate of dentine embedded in the skin and a backward pointing spine tipped with enamel Spiral Valve = the lower portion of the intestine in sharks. The spiral valve is internally twisted to increase the surface area of the intestine to increase nutrient absorption. Swim bladder: gas filled sac of many bony fishes used in buoyancy and in some cases respiratory gas exchange. What types of adaptations help make fish successful? Closed circulatory system Outer covering in scales Chapter 17 Class Amphibia The general characteristics of Modern Amphibians are: 1. The skeleton is mostly bony 2. Usually has four limbs 3. A heart with two atria; double circulation, which directs to oxygenated blood through the lungs 4. Skin is smooth, moist, and mostly glandular Lay eggs with jellylike membrane coverings 6. Bars with tympanic membrane (eardrum) and stapes (columella) to transmit vibrations to inner ear .V‘ There are three orders of amphibians they are: Order Gymnophiona, Order Urodela, and Order Anura. Order Gymnophiona- body elongate; limbs absent; scales present in skin of somel tail short or absent. Common name: Caecilians. Order Urodela- body with head, trunk, and tail; no scales; usually two pairs of equal limbs; many vertebrae. Common name: Salamanders. Order Anura— head and trunk; fused; no tail; no scales; two pairs of limbs; large mouth; lungs; 6—10 vertebrae (including urostyle). Common name: Frogs and Toads. Some things I mentioned: Integumentary system — The Integumentary system is the organ system that protects the body from damage, compri sing the skin and its appendages (like hair; feathers, etc). Flip and grab feeding style— this isn’t in the book or online. Cutaneous respiration- general amphibian condition of having extensive vascular nets in their skin for respiratory exchange or carbon dioxide and oxygen with the external environment Buccopharyngeal respiration- a special sort of breathing used by frogs Where the gas exchange occurs directly across the roof of the mouth. Pulmonary respiration/rentilation— breathing. The exchange of gases between the environment and lungs How do frogs regulate their body temperature? Through the environmental heat and the adaptive behaviors such as skin color or secreting liquids through their skin. What sensory mechanisms do amphibians have that show adaptation to land? Amplexus- basically a sex position where the male hops on the back and wraps his arms around the female and squeezes. At the same time he fertilizes her eggs with his sperm. Metamorphosis as it pertains to amphibians— goes from an egg to tadpole to frog over a period of time. This can happen in a matter of days or weeks depending on how fast it needs to be done, such as if a puddle is drying up or if the metamorphosis occurs in a pond for example. Chapter 18 Class Reptilia Characteristics of Nonavian Reptiles: 1. Body covered with keratinized scales 2. Two paired limbs, usually with five toes 3. Pair of kidneys; uric acid is the main nitrogenous waste 4. Sexes separate; fertilization internal 5. Eggs covered with leathery shells 6. Respiration primarily by lungs There are three orders of Class Reptila they are: Order Testndines, Order Squamata, and Order Crocodilia Order Testudines- enclosed in shells consisting of a dorsal carapace and a ventral plastron; shell is fused to the vertebrae and ribs; turtles cannot expand their chests to breathe; nest temperatures determine the sex of the hatchlings low makes males high makes females. Common name: Turtles . Order Squamata: this group is 95% of the known nonavian reptiles; have a kinetic skull having movable joints. Common name: Snakes and lizards What is an amniotic egg? Why is it important? An amniotic egg has 4 membranes. The amnion encloses the embryo in fluid, acting as a cushion; the allantois forms a sac for waste; the chorion surround the entire contents of the egg; and yolk sac. It is important because it can be laid almost everywhere and allows for a faster growing embryo. What adaptations do reptiles have for living on dry land? Carapace— a shield like plate covering the dorsal part of the shell of a turtle Plastron- ventral body shield of turtles Kinetic skull— has movable joints allowing for snakes and lizard to eat things that are much larger than they are. Autotomy- detachment of the body by the organism itself Pit organ- pits on some snakes located between the nostrils that have a dense packing of nerve ending that are very sensitive to radiant energy and can distinguish between temperatures. What is different about reptile skin compared to amphibians? The biggest difference is that reptile skin is dry and scaly with scales on top of the skin whereas the amphibians skin is smooth and moist and sometimes sticky. Don’t forget to review the feeding styles and reproductive strategies for reptiles. Chapter 19 Pages Define: Altricial- referring to young animals (especially birds) having the young hatched in an immature dependent condition. Alulu— the first digit or thumb of a bird’s wing, much reduced in size Clutch- refers to all of the eggs produced by a bird or reptile Keratin— a scleroprotein found in epidermal tissues and modified into hard structures such as horns, hair, and nails. Monogamy- one mate Pectoralis muscle— the largest muscle in birds, it is the breast muscle. Plumage- the layer of feathers that cover a bird and give it is coloring. Pneumatized bones— the presence of air pockets in bones Polygamy— having more than one mate at one time Precocial- referring (especially) to birds whose young are covered with down and are able to walk when newly hatched. Preening/grooming— Supracoracoideus muscle— the two pairs of large muscles that move the wings in flight. Syrinx- the vocal organ of birds located at the base of the trachea. Know the basic feather structure that you learned in lab Chapter 20 Class Mammalia Infraclass Ornithodeiphia —— monotreme mammals Egg—layers — duck-billed platypus and echidnas Oviparous Infraclass Metatheria — marsupial mammals Viviparous Primitive placenta Young born early — short gestation period ~ ranges 12 — 30 days Infraclass Eutheria w placental mammals Complex placenta Young develop to more advanced stage prior to birth Gestation - 21 days — small animals ~ 22 months — elephant What are the distinguishing characteristics of mammals? Mammary glands— feed young Muscular diaphragm 3 middle ear ossicles 4 chambered heart Red blood cells without nucleus Large cerebral cortex Integument with sweat, scent and sebaceous glands Hair What are heterodont teeth? Teeth that have been specialized to do functions such as cutting, seizing, gnawing, tearing, grinding, and chewing What type of feeding habits are exhibited by mammals? Insectivorous mammals feed on insects Herbivorous mammals feed on vegetation Carnivorous mammals feed mainly of herbivores Omnivorous mammals eat both plants and animals Are teeth type and feeding habits related? Yeah, teeth correlate with what the mammal can crew, tear, eat What is the largest mammal? What is the smallest mammal? Largest is the blue whale Smallest is the bumblebee bat What mammals belong to the Infraclass Ornithodelphia? Duck billed platypus Echindnas= spiny anteater Egg laying— oviparous What mammals belong to the Infraclass Metatheria? Marsupial mammals: Kangaroo and opossum V1viparous Primitive placenta Young born early in development What mammals belong to the Infraclass Eutheria? Placental mammals = everything else Complex placenta Young develop to advance stage prior to birth What is a marsupium? One of the pouched mammals of the subclass metatheria What is keratin? A scleroprotein found in epidermal tissues and modified into hard structures such as horns, hair and nails What is different about mammal skin versus skin of other vertebrates? Mammals have sweat glands: cooling method, scent glands: communication, sebaceous glands: hair , and mammary glands: being able to produce milk. What is the difference between guard hairs and the underfur? Include structure and function. Guard hairs: for protection against wear and to provide coloration Underfur= dense, soft hair for insulation Why is hair shed/melted? To allow for new growth, or to change a coat for a new season for some animals What are vibrissae? Commonly called whiskers are really sensory hairs that provide a tactile sense to many mammals What are the three main types of glands associated with mammal skin? — Briefly list their functions. Mammals have sweat glands: cooling method, scent glands: communication, sebaceous glands: hair, and mammary glands: being able to produce milk. Claws are formed by accumulation of keratin that covers the terminal phalanx (fancy term for bone in foot or hand) of the digits. Claws are for locomotion, offensive and defensive behavior. Nails and hooves are specialized claws. What types of locomotion are found in mammals? Flight, climbing, swimming and running What behaviors are associated with parental care in mammals? Family protection, burrows, nest, precocial, ...
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Final Study Guide - Kingdom Animalia Phylum Porifera 4 r I...

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