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Unformatted text preview: Christine L. Williams The Glass Escalator: Hidden Advantages for Men in the Female Professions What is the current state of occupational sex segregation? 211 This paper focuses on discrimination in what four occupations? 211 What does the token group literature suggest about discrimination in these occupations? 212 How did men perceive the effect of their status on hiring? 213 What kind of tracking did men report facing? 214 What does Williams mean by the metaphor of a glass escalator? 214 At what levels did the operation of this escalator seem strongest? 215 What role does Williams find for personal ambition vs. structural opportunities in mens move- ment into male defined arenas? 215 Mens underrepresentation in these professions cannot be attributed to what? 215 What is the gender of supervisors and administrators in these fields? 215 How does that impact mens experiences? 216 Who did men report that male bosses discriminated against? 217 What was the impact of perceived homosexuality? 217 What differences were reported by men whose supervisors were women? 217-218What differences were reported by men whose supervisors were women?...
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