# 10 - 16:19:32 CS 61B Lecture 10 Monday Todays reading 1 10...

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09/20/10 16:19:32 1 10 CS 61B: Lecture 10 Monday, September 20, 2010 Today’s reading: Sierra & Bates, pp. 95-109, 662. equals() ======== Every class has an equals() method. If you don’t define one explictly, then "r1.equals(r2)" returns the same boolean value as "r1 == r2", where r1 and r2 are references. However, many classes redefine equals() to compare the _content_ of two objects. Integer (in the java.lang library) is such a class; it stores one private int. Two distinct Integer objects are equals() if they contain the same int. In the following example, "i1 == i2" is false, but "i1.equals(i2)" is true. "i2 == i3" and "i2.equals(i3)" are both true. --- ------- --- ------- --- i1 |.+--->| 7 | i2 |.+--->| 7 |<---+.| i3 --- ------- --- ------- --- There are at least four different degrees of equality. (1) Reference equality, ==. (2) Shallow structural equality: two objects are "equals" if all their fields are ==. For example, two SLists whose "size" fields are equal and whose "head" fields point to the same SListNode. (3) Deep structural equality: two objects are "equals" if all their fields are "equals". For example, two SLists that represent the same sequence of items (though the SListNodes may be different). (4) Logical equality. Two examples: (a) Two "Set" objects are "equals" if they contain the same elements, even if the underlying lists store the elements in different orders. (b) The Fractions 1/3 and 2/6 are "equals", even though their numerators and denominators are all different. The "equals" method for a particular class may test any of these four levels of equality, depending on what seems appropriate. Let’s write an equals() method for SLists that tests for deep structural equality. The following method returns true only if the two lists represent identical sequences of items. public class SList { public boolean equals(SList other) { if (size != other.size) { return false; } SListNode n1 = head; SListNode n2 = other.head; while (n1 != null) { if (!n1.item.equals(n2.item)) { return false; } n1 = n1.next; n2 = n2.next; } return true; } } Note that this implementation may fail if the SList invariants have been corrupted. TESTING ======= Complex software, like Project 1, is easier to debug if you write test code to make sure that the methods you write are working correctly. We’ll consider three types of testing: (1) Modular testing: testing each method and each class separately. (2) Integration testing: testing a set of methods/classes together. (3) Result verification: testing results for correctness, and testing data structures to ensure they still satisfy their invariants.

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