06+Models+of+Innovation

06+Models+of+Innovation - SOSC111...

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    SOSC111  Lecture 6 Innovation Models
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From Understanding How  Technology Functions… The previous lectures gave us two conceptual  frameworks for understanding technological  change: Technological networks  that described  artifact/knowledge inputs (interdependence),  complements, feedbacks, and ultimately path  dependency. Socio-technical systems  that described social  lag, negotiation space, and closure These concepts are extremely useful for  dissecting (taking apart) technological  change.
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… to How New Technology is  Created Our task is slightly different now.  We are  interested in the ingredients for developing  new technologies.  What  EXACTLY  do we  need to get new ideas? The previous models suggest only that: New technologies will probably  depend on old  artifact and knowledge inputs New technologies will probably be the result of a  negotiation  (or competition) between individuals  and groups.
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Invention vs. Innovation In this class we make a distinction between  invention and innovation.  Invention is the  idea  behind a new  technology. Innovation is an invention that has been  developed into a usable product  (artifact  or knowledge). People often use these terms as if they were  the same – but we need to distinguish them in  order to analyse how technology is created
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This distinction is important We live in a world full of  new inventions .   Every week there are hundreds of new patent  applications.  Yet most of these inventions will  never be made into a usable product. Inventions can lead to innovations, but they  are clearly not sufficient for innovations.  We thus want to know how  innovations  (of  which inventions are a component) come  about.
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US Patents for Useless  Inventions US4344424: Anti-eating face mask   US4809435: Eating utensil  
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Supply or Demand? Two competing models had been proposed  to show why innovation happens 1. Innovation is based on the  supply  of new  discoveries or inventions 2. Innovation is based on the  demand  for new  technologies The US government wanted to know which  model was correct. They phrased the question as follows:  Should  they invest in long-term scientific research (new  discoveries) or invest in short-term engineering  research (to meet the demand for technology)?
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“HINDSIGHT” In the late 1960s, the US Department of  Defense funded a study of the development  of  20 weapons systems  in the US.  The study attempted to identify where  innovations  originated , and divided the 20  weapons systems into 710 discrete scientific-
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This note was uploaded on 01/10/2012 for the course SOSC 111 taught by Professor Wonganson during the Summer '10 term at HKUST.

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06+Models+of+Innovation - SOSC111...

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