Lec8_HWSW_v2

Lec8_HWSW_v2 - Hardware & Software ISOM 101, Spring...

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Unformatted text preview: Hardware & Software ISOM 101, Spring 2011 Lecture 8 HKUST Business School Overview What are the major components of a computer? How are these components related to each other and what are their respective functions? How should a company decide whether to develop the software (in house), purchase off-the-shelf, or adopt open-source? ISOM 101 Raymond G. Sin © 2 HKUST Business School Components of a Computer Motherboard (the heart) Why is it called “motherboard” anyways? CPU (the “brain”) Storage media (primary, secondary, etc.) Input and output devices (eyes, ears, mouth, hands) ISOM 101 Raymond G. Sin © 3 HKUST Business School Computer Configuration CPU Input Devices Secondary Storage Buses Output Devices ROM BIOS Chip Primary Storage ISOM 101 Raymond G. Sin © 4 HKUST Business School Central Processing Unit (CPU) Manipulates data and controls other parts of the computer system 2 main components Control ISOM 101 Unit Arithmetic-Logic Unit (ALU) Registers (temp. memory; like scrap paper) Raymond G. Sin © 5 HKUST Business School Control Unit Reads and interprets program instructions, one at a time Directs other computer components to perform tasks Controls flow of programs and data in and out of RAM ISOM 101 Raymond G. Sin © 6 HKUST Business School ALU Performs mathematical operations arithmetic operations (+,-,*,/) comparison operations (<, >, = ) logical operations (AND, OR) ISOM 101 Raymond G. Sin © 7 HKUST Business School Types of Storage (1) Volatile storage Requires electrical power to retain its data Non-volatile Retains storage its data in the absence of electrical power ISOM 101 Raymond G. Sin © 8 HKUST Business School Types of Storage (2) Primary Storage RAM (Random access memory) Volatile storage for current programs and data ROM (Read-only memory) Non-volatile; mainly for running preset programs (e.g. BIOS, OS) Cache memory Small, fast, expensive stores data for immediate repeated use Secondary Storage (non-volatile) Disk, ISOM 101 tape, optical media Raymond G. Sin © 9 HKUST Business School Types of Cache Cache Memory Helps improve processing time Storing frequently used instructions and data Level 1 (L1) Cache: built into processor chip (internal) Level 2 (L2) Cache: high speed SRAM chips (external) Processor searches memory in the order of L1L2-RAM ISOM 101 Raymond G. Sin © 10 HKUST Business School Secondary Storage Nonvolatile Outside Stores Uses the CPU and primary storage data relatively for a long-term magnetic or optical technology (Usually) ISOM 101 Involves mechanical parts Raymond G. Sin © 11 HKUST Business School Types of Secondary Storage Magnetic Tape Sequential, slow, inexpensive, typically used for large volume data (e.g., banking) Magnetic Disk (DASD: Direct Access Storage Device) Fast, more expensive (e.g. PC hard disk) Diskettes: GONE! ISOM 101 Raymond G. Sin © 12 HKUST Business School Types of Secondary Storage Optical Disk CD-ROM (700 MB), DVD (4.7 ~ 17GB), Blu-ray (50GB-400GB, 1TB by 2013) CD/DVD-R/BD-R (Recordable): record data only once CD/DVD-RW/BD-RE (Rewritable): record data many times Flash memory ISOM 101 Raymond G. Sin © 13 HKUST Business School Flash Memory Doesn’t run on mechanical parts Advantages? Retain data even when the power is off Used in various mobile devices: MP3 players (e.g. iPod), digital cameras, mobile phones… Memory stick, SD card, USB Flash Memory, etc. Will eventually replace all mobile storage devices and hard-disk drives in near future ISOM 101 Raymond G. Sin © 14 HKUST Business School Input Devices Entering text and numbers Keyboard Regular Cordless ISOM 101 (RFID/Bluetooth) Raymond G. Sin © 15 HKUST Business School Input Devices Pointing and Selecting Information Touch screen, touchpad Mouse, joystick, electronic pen Evolving Sony Mousetalk XEG ISOM 101 Gyration G2 Airmouse Raymond G. Sin © 16 HKUST Business School Kinect – The New Mouse? ISOM 101 Raymond G. Sin © 17 HKUST Business School Input Devices Entering Voice Audio and Video input Speech recognition, microphones Video/image input Digital cameras, Web cams, Mobile Phones Video cameras, Digital camcorders Scanners ISOM 101 Raymond G. Sin © 18 HKUST Business School Others Virtual reality Data glove HMD (Head mounted display) Brain Wave Input Using brain signal to process computing devices Being experimented by MIT Media Lab ISOM 101 Raymond G. Sin © 19 HKUST Business School Brain Wave Input ISOM 101 Raymond G. Sin © 20 HKUST Business School Augmented Reality ISOM 101 Raymond G. Sin © 21 HKUST Business School Ports and Connectors Ports Connections between the system box and different hardware devices (e.g. printer, mouse..) Connectors USB (Universal Serial Bus): the most popular means of connecting devices to a computer Serial connector: mostly used for monitors and modems Parallel connector: mostly used for printers ISOM 101 Raymond G. Sin © 22 HKUST Business School Ports Mouse port Keyboard port 2 USB ports Serial ports ISOM 101 Parallel port Raymond G. Sin © 23 An Illustration HKUST Business School Categories of Computers (1) Supercomputers For extremely fast and complex computations (multiple powerful CPUs) Weather forecasting, modeling nuclear explosions, designing new drugs, processing DNA structures ISOM 101 Raymond G. Sin © 25 HKUST Business School ISOM 101 Raymond G. Sin © 26 HKUST Business School Categories of Computers (2) Mainframes Large computer with massive memory, processing power used for large organizations (e.g. banks) Representing a period of highly centralized computing under the control of professional programmers and operators Users interact with the mainframe through local input devices called “dummy” terminals (e.g. ATM) Low compatibility among machines from different vendors (e.g. IBM may not be compatible with Fujitsu) ISOM 101 Raymond G. Sin © 27 HKUST Business School ISOM 101 Raymond G. Sin © 28 HKUST Business School Categories of Computers (3) Mini-computers or mid-range computers Often used for small to medium size organizations (scaled down versions of mainframes) Opened an era of decentralized computing: customized to the specific needs of individual departments Being substituted by personal computers/workstations (Engineering) Workstations Used for special purposes that need powerful graphics or computational capabilities (computeraided design, modeling stock market movements) SUN, HP, Silicon Graphics ISOM 101 Raymond G. Sin © 29 HKUST Business School ISOM 101 Raymond G. Sin © 30 HKUST Business School What is Software? Consists of programs - sets of detailed instructions that tell the computer to perform certain processing functions A program is a series of statements or instructions to the computer Programming is the process of writing or coding programs Programmers are people who write programs ISOM 101 Raymond G. Sin © 31 HKUST Business School Two Major Types of Software System software (often called operating system) Application software Application software must work through the system software to operate the computer ISOM 101 Raymond G. Sin © 32 HKUST Business School System software and Application Software Users Application software System software System software Hardware ISOM 101 Raymond G. Sin © 33 HKUST Business School System Software (OS) The system’s CEO Decides which computer resources will be used, which programs will run, and the order in which activities will take place. Coordinates the interaction between hardware devices (e.g., CPU, monitor) Provides a connection between application programs and hardware Provides a user interface ISOM 101 Raymond G. Sin © 34 HKUST Business School Graphical User Interface (GUI) The part of an operating system that users interact with interface between user and computer system Uses icons, buttons, bars, and mouse Well designed GUI saves learning time Dominant model for the user interface Other types of user interfaces are command-driven (e.g. DOS; C> copy filename a:) menu-driven ISOM 101 Raymond G. Sin © 35 HKUST Business School Multiprogramming (Multitasking) Multiple programs can reside in primary memory simultaneously. One program runs on the CPU while the input/output needs of other programs can be of services at the same time. Allows users to be more productive A user can jump back and forth between Excel and Word. ISOM 101 Raymond G. Sin © 36 HKUST Business School ISOM 101 Raymond G. Sin © 37 HKUST Business School Examples of Operating System ISOM 101 Raymond G. Sin © 38 HKUST Business School Application Software Programs to perform specific functions specified by end users (e.g. Excel, Word 7, Access, Netscape, IE) Two basic types Customized Developed Commercial (proprietary) specifically by or for an organization (off-the-shelf) Purchased and used by a variety of people/organizations ISOM 101 Raymond G. Sin © 39 HKUST Business School Advantages of Customized Application Software Customizable Meet unique user requirements Example: developing a software that helps shoppers locate specific products in a department store (touch screen interface, product catalog, map, etc.) Problem specific Pays only for the features specifically required by users Company or industry-specific terms (e.g. legal or medical terms), or unique types of in-house reports Such specificity is not possible in commercial software targeted to a general audience ISOM 101 Raymond G. Sin © 40 HKUST Business School Advantages of Commercial (Offthe-shelf) Application Software ISOM 101 Raymond G. Sin © 41 HKUST Business School Examples of Application Software Business Information Systems Applications developed to perform sophisticated, large-scale operations of an organization Payroll processing, inventory management, order processing, billing, shipping, demand forecasting… Office Automation / Personal Productivity Applications to help individuals or groups accomplish a wide range of tasks Word processing, spreadsheet, DBMS, e-mail, web browser, presentation software… ISOM 101 Raymond G. Sin © 42 HKUST Business School Open-Source Software Produced by a community of several hundred thousand programmers around the world (e.g. OpenSource.org) Wide range of commercially acceptable, high-quality software Free (almost), and can be modified Based on the belief that open-source software must be superior to commercial software developed by small teams of programmers: can distribute, fix, modify the source code much faster with more reliable results Linux, Firefox, Open Office, StarOffice 8, games… Can result in the savings of millions of dollars for large corporations ISOM 101 Raymond G. Sin © 43 HKUST Business School Linux World’s fastest growing operating system 3% in 2004 over 20% in 2010 Cheap, reliable, open-source Works on all major hardware platforms from mainframes to cell phones Excellent solution for system integration Applications for the Linux operating system are rapidly growing (e.g. Linspire Five-O, StarOffice) Has the potential to break Microsoft’s monopoly Major obstacle: compatibility ISOM 101 Raymond G. Sin © 44 ...
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