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Unformatted text preview: Chapter 3: Melody Definition A series of notes forming a distinctive, recognizable unit
Can produce an overwhelming emotional experience
The lyrical character of music Pitch The relative position of a musical sound Based on the vibrations per second of sound waves
Tone: sound with a definite, consistent pitch The Octave Duplication of a pitch at a higher or lower level
The pitch A can occur at 440 vibrations per second
The A an octave lower is 220 vibrations per second All cultures use the octave, but subdivide it differently Tonality Organization of music around a central tone
Central tone called the Tonic
Establishes tonality Melodies gravitate around the tonic Key A specific tonal center built on the tonic Makes use of a scale Key Signature Indicates the specific tonality of the composition
Identified by a pattern of musical symbols (sharps and flats) Placed at the beginning of the score Modulation Changing the key, or tonality, within a composition Scale A sequential arrangement of pitches Ascend and descend in an unvarying pattern
Mode: term describing a general type of scale: major, minor, etc.
Major and minor scales used in almost all Western melodies Scale Major A sevennote scale Order of whole and half steps: 111/21111/2 Usually associated with joy, confidence, tranquility, etc. Scale Minor A sevennote scale Order of whole and half steps: 11/2111/211
Usually associated with fear, anxiety, sorrow, despair, etc. Scale Diatonic: Notes that make the major and minor scales Chromatic Term derived from the Greek chroma, “color” Scale divides the octave into twelve half steps
More intense than diatonic melodies Melodic structure How melodies move Conjunct motion Disjunct motion Melodies often combine conjunct and disjunct motion One style typically predominates How melodies are organized Phrase A segment, or selfcontained, portion of a melody Functions much like a dependent phrase or clause in a sentence Musicians identify phrases by lower case letters “a” for the first, “b” for the second, etc. If a phrase repeats, the letter is used again “Ode to Joy” theme: a b c b Theme for The Flintstones: a a b a Melodic structure Melodies organized by phrases A segment, or selfcontained, portion of a melody
Phrases identified by lower case letters “a” for the first, “b” for the second, etc. If a phrase repeats, the letter is used again “Ode to Joy” theme: a b c b Theme for The Flintstones: a a b a Cadence: the concluding part of a phrase Phrase Antecedent and consequent phrases
Work in tandem Antecedent phrase Ends on a note other than the tonic Sounds incomplete Consequent phrase Ends on the tonic Concludes the antecedent phrase Motive A short distinctive melodic gesture Serves as the basis for creating melodies ...
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- Summer '08