Chapter_06_6e - Chapter 6 Musical Texture and Form Texture...

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Unformatted text preview: Chapter 6: Musical Texture and Form Texture The density and disposition of musical lines Dense, heavy Light, thin Three primary textures in music Compositions often use different textures for contrast Monophonic “One sounding” Single line of music, no accompaniment Unison Multiple people sing or play the same line Thin monophonic texture Music in parallel octaves still monophonic Polyphony “Many sounding” Two or more simultaneously sounding lines Counterpoint: harmonious opposition independent musical lines “Contrapuntal texture” and “polyphonic texture” synonymous Two types of counterpoint Imitative Voices duplicate some portion of the previous voice Canon: voices exactly duplicate the preceding voice Free counterpoint Each line melodically independent of any other Common in Jazz improvisation Homophony “Same sounding” All voices move at roughly the same time Strands are interdependent Blocks of sound result in chords Each voice may have melodic interest Draws attention to the melody line Used in hymns, Christmas carols, folk songs, etc. Form The purposeful organization of music Composition’s general shape as perceived by the listener Most forms (even in Jazz or Rock) used for centuries Three principles of form Repetition Establish weight, balance and symmetry Conveys sense of comfort and security to the listener Identify repetition by using the same letter: A A Three principles of form Contrast Provides variety and conflict Satisfies need for novelty and excitement Sections labeled B, C, D, etc. Three principles of form Variation Midway between repetition and contrast Music is familiar, but altered Given a superscript number: A1, B1, etc. All musical forms based on repetition, contrast, and variation Strophic Form Most familiar musical form Basic unit (A) is continually repeated: A A A Hymns, carols, folk songs, and patriotic songs Music repeats for each stanza of text A subdivided into phrases Johannes Brahms: Lullaby Johannes Brahms: Form: Strophic (A A) a b Ac c a b Ac c Intro CD/20 Guten Abend, gut’ Nacht, mit Rosen bedacht, Mit Näg’lein besteckt, schlupf’ unter die Deck’: Morgen früh, wenn Gott will, wirst du wieder geweckt, Morgen früh, wenn Gott will, wirst du wieder geweckt. Guten Abend, gut’ Nacht, von Eng’lein bewacht, Die zeigen im Traum dir Christkindleins Baum Schlaf’ nun selig und süss, Schau’ im Traum’s Paradies, Schlaf’ nun selig und süss, Schau’ im Traum’s Paradies. Theme and Variations Each repetition of the melody altered Melodic embellishment New harmony Rhythmic alterations Changes in color and texture Theme Variation 1 Variation 2 Variation 3 Variation 4 A A1 A2 A3 A4 Binary Form (AB) Two contrasting units Balance and complement each other Dissimilar mood, key, or melody creates variety Sections often repeated Aural result is A A B B Symbol indicates repetition in the music: ||: :|| Ternary Form (ABA) B section in a contrasting style Change in melody and key Usually a change in color Third section, A, repeats the opening Rondo Form Refrain alternates with contrasting music One of the oldest musical forms Simple style Three common patterns A B A B A A B A C A A B A C A B A Opening and closing statements of A often played twice ...
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