Chapter_12_6e - Chapter 12 Toward Late Chapter 12 Toward...

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Unformatted text preview: Chapter 12: Toward Late Chapter 12: Toward Late Baroque Instrumental Music The Baroque Orchestra Renaissance instruments disappeared Violin family dominates sound Harpsichord for basso continuo Gradually added: Pairs of woodwinds Occasionally trumpets and tympani Sometimes French horns Louis XIV The “Sun King” Absolutism Versailles Jean­Baptiste Lully (1632­1687) Born in Italy Career in France Superintendent of court music Created first thoroughly disciplined orchestra Perfected the French overture Johann Pachelbel Known in his day as a prolific composer for harpsichord and organ Pachelbel’s Canon in D Major Canon is played by 3 violins, all in the same range Low strings and harpischord play prominent basso continuo Basso continuo has pleasing intervallic pattern: fouths alternating with steps The Baroque Sonata Instrumental chamber music A collection of short movements Generally four to six movements Dance­like character Each movement a different dance Popular styles: allemande, sarabande, gavotte, and gigue Concert music, not dance music Arcangelo Corelli (1653­1713) Spent his career in Rome Violinist His sonatas were internationally popular Music remarkable for its harmony The Baroque Concerto Most popular, important genre of Baroque instrumental music Friendly contest between soloist and orchestra Soloists: “concertino” (“little concert”) Orchestra: “tutti” (“everybody”) Solo concerto: one soloist Concerto grosso: two or more soloists The Baroque Concerto Fast first movement Serious in tone Ritornello form Slow second movement: free form Fast third movement Often a rustic, dance­like character Ritornello form Characteristics of Ritornello Form All or part of a main theme returns * Tutti plays ritornello theme(s) *(tutti=all) Concertino alternates with virtuosic passages Free number of alternations Section Ritornello Solo Rit. Solo Rit. Solo Final Rit. Group Tutti Concertino Tutti Concertino Tutti Concertino Tutti number of alternations determined by composer Antonio Vivaldi (1678­1741) Career A virtuoso violinist Ospedale della Pietà (1703­1740) Taught lessons and conducted the orchestra Became music director Composed concertos for his students More than 450 concertos Violin Concerto in E major (“The Spring”) The first of four concertos entitled “The Seasons” Published in 1725, but composed earlier Sonnet accompanies each concerto Vivaldi’s best­known composition ...
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