Chapter_15_6e - Chapter 15 Classical Style Chapter 15...

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Unformatted text preview: Chapter 15: Classical Style Chapter 15: Classical Style Classical Aesthetic Proportion and Balance* Inspired by classical antiquity Illustrated in the period’s architecture Simplicity* Enlightenment Also called the Age of Reason Pursuit of truth, natural law Scientific advances Social justice, equality, tolerance, freedom of speech Voltaire and Rousseau Ultimately gave way to the Age of Revolution Social Change in Music Comic Opera Middle class values Everyday characters and situations Spoken dialogue, simple songs Slap­stick comedy, bawdy humor Satire of pompous and incompetent aristocrats Social Change in Music Public Concerts Performances gradually moved from palace to concert hall Supported by the middle class Social Change in Music The Piano Replaced the harpsichord Invented around 1700 Produced dynamic contrasts Played by amateurs, especially women Classical Style Melody Short, simple melodies Vocal style Frequent cadences Antecedent and consequent phrases Antecedent and consequent phrases Antecedent phrase Opening, incomplete­sounding phrase Often cadences on the dominant Consequent phrase Brings repose and closure Usually cadences on the tonic Antecedent and consequent phrases Typical features Phrases share similar rhythms and motives Phrases balance each other Harmony Irregular rate of harmonic change Changes more rapidly at cadences Fluid, flexible harmonic rhythm Simple chords Alberti bass Enlivens a passage of static harmony Named after Domenico Alberti* (1710­1740) Rhythm Contrasts with Baroque­style driving rhythm Greater variety within a single movement Texture Mostly homophonic Light and transparent Thin bass and middle range Counterpoint used sparingly and mainly for contrast Color Orchestra increases in size: fifty to sixty musicians Strings Remains the core of the orchestral sound Metal strings replace those of gut Form: a few standard forms regulate much of Classical music Color Woodwinds Full woodwind ensemble standard Flute Oboe Clarinet Invented around 1710 Mozart first heard it in 1778 Bassoon Orchestras included pairs of each instrument Color Brasses: only French horns or Trumpets Percussion only included on special occasions ...
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