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Chapter_16_6e - Chapter 16 Classical Composers Chapter 16...

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Unformatted text preview: Chapter 16: Classical Composers Chapter 16: Classical Composers Haydn and Mozart Vienna Vienna Importance Capital city of the old Holy Roman Empire Administrative center for the Austrian Empire Cultural crossroads for Central Europe Fourth largest city in Europe Vienna Importance of music Aristocratic patrons Supported numerous composers Attended public and private concerts Haydn, Mozart, and Beethoven All three resided there Created the Viennese Classical style Many amateur performers Profitable market for music teachers and publishers Audience knowledgeable and appreciative Audience knowledgeable and appreciative Haydn b. 1732 d. 1809 Mozart b. 1756 d. 1791 Beethoven b. 1770 d. 1827 Joseph Haydn (1732­1809) Spent nearly his entire life in Austria Early musical training as choirboy Freelance musician during the 1750s Gave keyboard lessons, accompanied singers Church musician Precarious finances Work for the Esterházy family Nearly thirty years: 1761­1790 A musical servant Conducted the prince’s personal orchestra Typically a limited audience Orchestra never larger than 25 musicians Work for the Esterházy family Composed music ordered by the prince Symphonies, operas, Masses, and chamber music Compositions “owned” by the prince Pirated copies circulated Eventually allowed to sell his compositions London tours Two trips: 1791­1792, 1794­1795 Financially lucrative Treated as a celebrity Composed the London Symphonies Audience typically between 800 and 900 Large orchestra: fifty or sixty players Honorary degree from Oxford Haydn’s Reputation Influential creator of mature Classical style String quartet 104 Symphonies Introduced theme and variations in the genre Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart (1756­1791) “The human incarnation of a divine force of creation”—Goethe Born in Salzburg, Austria Musical family Displayed extraordinary talent at an early age Most famous child prodigy in history Tours Throughout northern Europe and Italy Played for royalty and aristocracy Met many musicians Tours Purpose Initially to display his miraculous genius Sought fame, fortune, and patronage The actual result Exposed to a wealth of musical styles Increased his musical breadth and substance Vienna Free­lance musician 1781­1791 Peak of success: 1785­1787 A Little Night Music, 1787 Symphony No. 40, 1788 Final years Popularity declined Plagued by ill health, financial difficulties Reputation Possibly the greatest musical genius the world has ever known Compositions display diversity, breadth of expression, and perfect formal control that is only matched by the works of J. S. Bach ...
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