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Chapter_19_6e - Chapter 19 Classical Genres Chapter 19...

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Unformatted text preview: Chapter 19: Classical Genres Chapter 19: Classical Genres Instrumental Music Genre Definition Means a general type of music Distinguished by: Quality of musical style Performing medium (string quartet, orchestra, solo piano, etc.) Place of performance Classical Genres of Instrumental Music Symphony String quartet Sonata Concerto Serenade/Divertimento The Symphony Origin Traces back to the sinfonia Late Baroque Italian opera overture Three sections: fast—slow—fast From sinfonia to symphony Performances began apart from operas Sections expanded into movements Northern European composers added a fourth movement Minuet and Trio Became fast—slow—minuet—fast The Symphony Performance Popularity tied to growth of public concerts Resulted in a larger ensemble Esterházy’s orchestra: never larger than 25 Ensembles of 50 or more for public concerts More winds added to the ensemble Symphony No. 40 in G minor, K. 550 (1788) An introspective mood of tragedy and despair Falling half step Omits festive trumpets and drums Not related to a specific biographical event* Invokes the “tragic” muse A generalized statement Based on a lifetime of experiences and premonition of early death First movement a “textbook” example of sonata­ allegro form Symphony No. 40 in G minor, first movement A “textbook” example of sonata­allegro form Exposition First theme played twice Transition theme: sequence by descending seconds Symphony No. 40 in G minor, first movement Exposition Second theme Played twice Line descends by minor seconds Closing theme based on first theme Symphony No. 40 in G minor, first movement Development* First section First theme modulates through distant keys Sequential repetition of theme descends by step Second section Fugato between basses and violins Invertible counterpoint Third section Development of the initial motive Retransition to Recapitulation* Symphony No. 40 in G minor, first movement Recapitulation Follows order as presented in Exposition Transition theme extended Coda Begins with a rising chromatic scale Concluding repetitions of the motive The String Quartet A genre of chamber music Two violins, viola, and cello One person per part Four movements: fast—slow—minuet—fast Genre created by Joseph Haydn* The String Quartet Performance Location Small concert hall Private home Performed by amateur as well as professional musicians Audience Typically a small, intimate group Performers often played for themselves, without an audience The String Quartet Haydn and Mozart Played quartets together in 1784­1785 Haydn played first violin Mozart played viola Resulted in a life­long friendship Mozart dedicated a set of quartets to Haydn Haydn: Opus 76, No. 3, The “Emperor” Quartet (1797) Known as the “Emperor” because of its famous theme Melody composed in response to the military and political events Honored Emperor Franz II* Popularity of the tune (text altered) Served as national anthems for Austria and Germany Used as a Protestant hymn The Emperor’s Hymn was Haydn’s favorite composition The Sonata Baroque vs. Classic sonata Baroque sonata Succession of four or five movements Movements based on dance rhythms Solo harpsichord or strings and continuo (solo and trio sonatas) The Sonata Baroque vs. Classic sonata Classic era sonata Three movements: fast—slow—fast Common forms: Sonata—allegro Ternary Rondo Theme and variations Most frequently composed for solo piano The Sonata Performance Location NOT intended for public concert halls Played in homes as musical entertainment Performers Most often played by amateur musicians Professionals played sonatas for private performances The Concerto Baroque vs. Classic concerto Baroque concerto Concerto grosso and solo concerto Concertino most often string or wind instruments Concertino rarely included the harpsichord Three movement form: fast—slow—fast First and third movements in ritornello form The Concerto Baroque vs. Classic concerto Classic concerto Solo concerto the rule Solo piano most common Orchestral instruments as soloists less common Three movement form: fast—slow—fast First movement uses double exposition form Double exposition form Modification of sonata­allegro form Exposition Orchestra plays first exposition Plays first, (transition optional), second, and closing themes All themes remain in the tonic key Double exposition form Exposition Soloist plays the second exposition Themes often ornamented slightly Transition theme moves to the dominant Soloist often introduces a new theme Orchestra accompanies the soloist Double exposition form Development Conversational style between soloist and orchestra Often more modulation than thematic development Recapitulation Continues the dialogue style of the development Cadenza near the end of the recapitulation After cadenza the movement concludes swiftly Double exposition form Cadenza Introduced by an orchestral fermata Passage for soloist alone Often improvisatory Based on themes from the movement Soloist signals cadenza’s conclusion with a trill ...
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