Chapter_21_6e - Chapter 21 Beethoven Chapter 21 Beethoven...

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Unformatted text preview: Chapter 21: Beethoven Chapter 21: Beethoven Bridge to Romanticism LUDWIG VAN BEETHOVEN LUDWIG VAN BEETHOVEN Chronology: Early Period (1770­1802) Chronology: Early Period (1770­1802) Birth, 1770 Declaration of Independence, 1776 Battle of Yorktown, 1781 Plays for Mozart in Vienna, 1787 Mozart composes Symphony No. 40 Beginning of French Revolution, 1789 Death of Mozart, 1791 Moves to Vienna, 1792 Haydn composes Symphony No. 94, 1792 Studies with Haydn, 1792 Early symptoms of deafness, late 1790s Haydn composes Emperor’s Hymn, 1797 “Pathétique” Sonata, 1799 Symphony No. 1, 1800 Symphony No. 2, 1802 Heiligenstadt Testament, 1802 Napoleon named Consul, 1799 Chronology: Middle (Heroic) Period Chronology: Middle (Heroic) Period (1803­1813) Symphony No. 3, 1803 Louisiana Purchase, 1803 Napoleon declares himself Emperor, 1804 Battles of Austerlitz and Trafalger, 1805 Symphony No. 4, 1806 Symphony No. 5, 1808 Symphony No. 6, 1808 Death of Haydn, 1809 Symphony No. 7, 1812 Symphony No. 8, 1812 Battle of Borodino (Russia), 1812 Chronology: Late Period (1814­1827) Chronology: Late Period (1814­1827) Battle of Waterloo, 1815 Franz Schubert composes Erl King, 1815 Mary Shelley writes Frankenstein, 1818 Missa solemnis, 1823 Symphony No. 9, 1824* Felix Mendelssohn composes Overture to A Midsummer Night’s Dream, 1826 Death of Adams and Jefferson, 4 July 1826 Death, 1827 Beethoven as pianist Beethoven as pianist Played with “superhuman” speed and force Sometimes hit wrong notes Played louder than anyone before him Known for his legato, singing style Caused an intense emotional response Piano Sonata, Opus 13, the “Pathétique” Piano Sonata, Opus 13, the “ Sonata Composed 1798­1799 Supplied the title himself Gave titles to only two sonatas “Pathétique” suggests passion and pathos More virtuosic than any earlier sonata Beethoven frequently played it in aristocratic homes Piano Sonata, Opus 13, the “Pathétique” Sonata Piano Sonata, Opus 13, the “ Emphasizes extremes of dynamics, tempo, and range Slow introduction suggests Beethoven’s style of improvisation Crashing chords return throughout the first movement Sonata form controls the passionate intensity Second movement famous for its beautiful melody Third movement a vigorous rondo Beethoven’s deafness Beethoven’s deafness 1796: early symptoms 1816: began using an ear trumpet 1817: could no longer hear music 1818: began using “Conversation Books” Artistic impact Reduced his creative outlet to composition Felt free to experiment with new forms Symphony No. 5 in C minor Symphony No. 5 in C minor Composed between 1804 and 1808 Premiere performance: 22 December 1808 Four movements convey sense of psychological progression*(romantic trait) First movement: fateful encounter with elemental forces Second movement: period of quiet soul­searching Third movement: further wrestling with the elements Fourth movement: triumphant victory over Fate Symphony No. 5 in C minor Symphony No. 5 in C minor Opening motive “There Fate knocks at the door!” attributed to Beethoven Motive dominates the first movement*(romantic trait) Also appears in the remaining movements Binds the symphony into a unified work Rhythm matches the Morse code symbol for “V” Symphony No. 5 in C minor, first movement Symphony No. 5 in C minor, first movement Exposition Opens with a sudden explosion First theme based on motive Transition adds two notes to motive Lyricalsecond theme, motive in accompaniment Closing theme based on motive Symphony No. 5 in C minor, first movement Symphony No. 5 in C minor, first movement Development First section based entirely on motive Melodic shape of motive altered Rhythmic profile remains constant Second section based on Transition theme After initial statement the theme is reduced Pattern occurs twice Retransition an insistent repetition of motive Symphony No. 5 in C minor, first movement Symphony No. 5 in C minor, first movement Recapitulation Oboe cadenza separates two statements of first theme Transition played by bassoons Modulation required French horns change crooks Some modern recordings rescore the work for French horns Second Theme and Closing according to expectation Symphony No. 5 in C minor, first movement Symphony No. 5 in C minor, first movement Coda Longer than the Exposition Functions as a second Development section Introduces a new theme Concludes with opening motive and cadences Symphony No. 5 in C minor Symphony No. 5 in C minor Significant innovations Motivic unity between the four movements Musical transition joins third and fourth movements New instruments added to orchestra Trombone Contrabassoon Piccolo Final Years Final Years Totally deaf and withdrawn from society Music more remote and inaccessible Mainly composed introspective chamber music Two large scale compositions Missa solemnis (1823) Symphony No. 9 (1824) All Vienna mourned his death in 1827 Symphony No. 9, fourth movement Symphony No. 9, fourth movement First symphony to include a chorus An die Freude (Ode to Joy) Only appears in the fourth movement Text written by Friedrich von Schiller Text honors idea of universal brotherhood Beethoven drawn to text throughout his life Worked on the melody for nearly twenty years ...
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