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Chapter_24_6e

Chapter_24_6e - Chapter 24 Romantic Music Chapter 24...

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Unformatted text preview: Chapter 24: Romantic Music Chapter 24: Romantic Music Program Music and Ballet Program Music Definition Instrumental music, often orchestral Tells a story through music Historical event, natural wonder, etc. Program Music Evokes particular feelings and associations Lyrical melody may suggest love Dissonance a sense of conflict Trumpet calls the arrival of a hero Combining gestures suggests a sequence of events Absolute music Instrumental music No text or program The opposite of program music Genres of Program Music Program Symphony A three­, four­, or five­movement symphony Individual movements depict a succession of scenes Examples Berlioz: Symphonie fantastique Liszt: “Faust” Symphony Genres of Program Music Symphonic poem One­movement work for orchestra Gives musical expression to emotions and events Synonymous with “tone poem” Examples Tchaikovsky: Romeo and Juliet Strauss: Thus Spoke Zarathustra Genres of Program Music Dramatic Overture An introductory movement preceding an opera or play Soon performed by themselves Examples Mendelssohn: Overture to A Midsummer Night’s Dream Rossini: Overture to William Tell Genres of Program Music Concert Overture An independent, one­movement work Intended for the concert hall Does not precede an opera or play Virtually indistinguishable from the symphonic poem Examples Tchaikovsky: The 1812 Overture Mendelssohn: Hebrides Overture Genres of Program Music Incidental Music Music inserted between acts or within a play Adds an extra dimension to the drama Examples Mendelssohn: Incidental music to A Midsummer Night’s Dream Grieg: Peer Gynt Hector Berlioz (1803­1869) Reputation One of the most original figures in music Modified forms to suit the program First composer to earn a livelihood as a music critic Skilled in orchestration Experimented with new instruments Compositions require an enormous number of musicians Hector Berlioz Influenced by literature, especially Shakespeare Life epitomized the artist as Romantic hero Participated in a Parisian revolution Consorted with bandits in Italy Turned failed love affair into a musical masterpiece Symphonie fantastique The first complete program symphony Composed between 1827­1830 Berlioz wrote the program Harriet Smithson English Shakespearian actress Berlioz fell madly in love He experienced unrequited love, rejection, and despair Provided the imaginative stimulus for the symphony Symphonie fantastique Revolutionary aspects* Five movements Unifying theme: idée fixe (“fixed idea”) Represents “the beloved” Appears in each movement Altered to reflect his changing mood about “the beloved” Symphonie fantastique Revolutionary aspects* Included new instruments Ophicleide English horn Harp Cornet Symphonie fantastique Revolutionary aspects* Novel playing effects Col legno Pedal tones in brasses Mutes and glissandos produce weird sounds Form based on the program Symphonie fantastique Fifth movement: Dream of the Witches’ Sabbath Parody of the idée fixe Symphonie fantastique Fifth movement: Dream of the Witches’ Sabbath Parody of the Dies irae chant Burial hymn of the medieval Church Phrases played in three versions Long tones Rhythmic diminution As a satiric dance Symphonie fantastique Fifthmovement: Dream of the Witches’ Sabbath Use of contrapuntal techniques Fugato Meant to reflect dancing witches Creates effect of tumultuous movement Double counterpoint Peter Tchaikovsky (1840­1893) Most prolific writer of late­nineteenth­century program music Professor at Moscow Conservatory Supported by patroness Madame Nadezhda and Tsar Alexander III Wrote opera, songs, string quartets, piano sonatas, concerti, and symphonies Peter Tchaikovsky Known today for program music and ballets The 1812 Overture (1882) heard in the U.S. on 4th of July Originally commemorated Russian defeat of Napoleon Popular; “Big name” brought to America for the opening of Carnegie Hall in 1891 Romeo and Juliet (1869, rev. 1880) Free representation of principal events Sonata­allegro form Three main themes Friar Laurence Feud theme Romeo and Juliet Three main themes Love theme (part 1) “. . . how very inspirational it is! What ineffable beauty, what burning passion! It is one of the finest themes in all of Russian music!” —Rimsky­Korsakov Ballet Dramatic dance in which characters and steps tell a story First performed as diversion in the middle of an opera Became independent genre by early 19 th century Tchaikovsy’s talents uniquely suited to ballet “Short­segment” style; could create one striking melody/mood after another Swan Lake (1876), Sleeping Beauty (1889), The Nutcracker (1892) ...
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