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Chapter_37_6e - Chapter 37 American Popular Music Chapter...

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Unformatted text preview: Chapter 37: American Popular Music, Chapter 37: American Popular Music, 1850­World War II Folk music Usually remembered by ear, not written down Music and text change over the years Country music Came from ballads of Anglo­Irish settlers in Appalachian region Fiddle, banjo, dulcimer Radio, recording separated country music from folk tradition The Carter Family Husband­and­wife team from westernmost Virginia Vibrato­less voices Recorded well­known Appalachian folk songs Marked beginning of country music as we know it Blues Origins A form of black folksong Emerged during the 1880s and 1890s Passed along by oral tradition First printed as sheet music in 1912 First recorded in 1920 Precursors of the Blues Work song and field holler of black laborers Wailing vocal style Blues scale General subject matter of the lyrics Anglo­American folk ballad Regular, predictable pattern of chord changes Blues Lyrics Expresses pain and anger, relieves melancholy Three to six stanzas common Each stanza three lines (AAB form) A: The blues is a lowdown, achin’ heart disease, A: The blues is a lowdown, achin’ heart disease, B: It’s like consumption, killin’ you by degrees. Instrumental Break A short instrumental response to the voice Occurs at the end of each line Blues Scale Features blue notes Notes that fall between the diatonic notes of the scale Common in African­American folk song Used in place of a major or minor scale Twelve­bar blues Pattern repeats for each stanza of text Additional chords can be inserted Vocal lines: A Chord: 1 A 2 3 4 break B break IV I Measure: break I V I 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 Bessie Smith (1894­1937) “Empress of the Blues” Sold 2 million records her first year Highest­paid black artist of the day “Lost Your Head Blues” (1926) Twelve­bar blues Five choruses Jazz Mixture different musical influences Spirituals and blues Complex rhythm Percussive sounds Bending vocal style European elements Marches and hymns Folk music Jazz General definition Lively and energetic Pulsating rhythms and scintillating syncopations Played by a combo or big band Tends to be polyphonic Strong element of improvisation Ragtime The immediate precursor of jazz Primarily piano music Emerged in saloons and brothels Eventually accepted into middle­class homes Lost popularity after World War I Ragtime Musical style Steady bass, syncopated treble Jaunty and upbeat Originated during the 1890s Scott Joplin (1868­1917) “King of Ragtime” Maple Leaf Rag his most successful composition Composed in 1899 Sold more than a million copies Provided Joplin with financial security New Orleans Jazz Also known as traditional jazz Many artists lived in New Orleans Style Melody played by the trumpet Clarinet supports trumpet, embellishes the tune Trombone adds a lower contrapuntal line Rhythm section sets harmony and tempo Improvised Louis Armstrong (1901­1971) Hot Five and Hot Seven recordings Tremendous commercial and artistic success Only performed in the recording studio Invented “scat” singing Nonsense syllables Voice treated like an instrument Big Bands and Swing Height of popularity in 1930s and early 1940s Large ensemble Multiple trumpets, trombones, and saxophones Rhythm section still consistsof single instruments Big Bands and Swing “Charts” rather than improvisation Everything planned out Played from notation A more disciplined, polished sound Major ensembles Duke Ellington and Count Basie Glenn Miller, Benny Goodman George Gershwin (1898­1937) Began his career as a song plugger Soon writing his own songs Rich and famous at age 21 Created symphonic jazz ...
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