0609213 hw3 solutions 20061 locked

0609213 hw3 solutions 20061 locked - MM,Z/M#3...

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Unformatted text preview: MM ,Z/M #3 C/M/x‘nf/z .2 3 2 V, 25', :26; 2 2; :2 9, 30, 3U 3.2, 34/, 3: 94 Satyr/mu )9 TEA/13 CW2 I’ZZVLZK a 4/) WWW" COZZé/Vf L/léé Ar Kifl‘fief mm m M arm/p 0/: 200 ffléofltr/c/u/ ”WV/w: Fo/e 9/04? L/F/fi (400/1) : W (2,?) My J‘ mam/A1 O .. ICAM/J) = A4 KAN/~15? Z/flé gay/I) 1:1 2004A 215—4; 904 25‘) VAL/W /J rm: M raw/m 0F /} Anyway 7%? aw Wot/Mg 0.2/1L Fez 7:4! A1 flAr/MG : Z/f/j (A) z 164) (7:4 ) (a, 24) , [an AA 2 26‘) flow m/vy mm; Ma AL mar/7&4, w/ 77+ A 3'; AA [Ar/M53 Witaeer/cm/ flew/pg fl coma/Mr 0,5 /..,2 2,4,7 mm): M =- /‘ 2 m :23) A [elf/505 ftlfV/J/onl (mm/G A /;2V/ 3 AA fizzy/m FEM w KAfTé/e/ c/r/v O/A‘flif/E FM ,4 fl/ve/M 0% 14/3007 6‘4 , WWW /.r H??? iW/‘wfirfi" 60/21/9er paw/u paz om fi/f flag/M 2 mar /f 775 gwaey fXfl/f/Wéfl By f/f/f fl/rfifit/ a; Tout/EJ 7 I I I : 3AA : 0, $71 6/ /l/ach W: G V/ (2.3) \CoaLo/w'; Jouéts zzur 164) s G (c) /,r (:ec) Q!) Sea/M5: (2,!) Fax Q3 Q: 1.; (054) (€4)(%m)( 59m; H MM Q 3’ /0 3006 W : 00/ 300 6) (UV) ’ [”291600 fofléf} 2/; 29) Discuss two properties of the atomic structure of copper that make it a good conductor 1 — Copper has only one electron in the valence ring. This ring is incomplete. 2 —- The 29th electron resides in the valence ring. This electron is far away (relatively speaking) from the nucleus and therefore, easily liberated. 30) Explain the terms insulator and breakdown strength An insulator is a material that resists current flow. The breakdown strength is the voltage at which a significant current will start to flow through the insulator. 31) List three uses of insulators not mentioned in section 2.8 - To construct capacitors (air, mica, ceramics, teflon, etc) - To make printed-wiring boards (epoxy-fiberglass FR4, etc) - To make “black tape” (electricians tape) 32) What is a semiconductor? How does it compare with a conductor and an insulator? From http://www.answers.com/topic/semiconductor: A solid crystalline material whose electrical conductivity is intermediate ‘ between‘that of a metal and an insulator. Semiconductors exhibit conduction properties that may be temperature-dependent, permitting their use as thermistors (temperature-dependent resistors), or voltage-dependent, as in varistors. By making suitable contacts to a semiconductor or by making the material suitably inhomogeneous, electrical rectification and amplification can be obtained. Semiconductor devices, rectifiers, and transistors have replaced vacuum tubes almost completely in low-power electronics, making it possible to save volume and power consumption by orders of magnitude. In the form of integrated circuits, they are vital for complicated systems... 33) Consult a semiconductor electronics text (or a reputable internet source) and note the extensive use of germanium and silicon semiconductor materials. Review the characteristics of each material. From http://www.answerscom/silicon: (Si) The base material used in chips. Next to oxygen, it is the most abundant element in nature and is found in a natural state in rocks and sand. Its atomic structure and availability make it an ideal semiconductor material. In chip making, it is mined from white quartz rocks and put through a chemical process at high temperatures to purify it. ...nonmetallic chemical element; symbol Si; at. no. 14; at. wt. 28.0855; m.p. 1,410°C; b.p. 2,355°C; sp. gr. 2.33 at 25°C; valence usually +4. Silicon is the element directly below carbon and above germanium in Group 14 of the periodic table. It is more metallic in its properties than carbon; in many ways it resembles germanium... U/trapure silicon can be doped with other elements to adjust its electrical response by controlling the number and charge (positive or negative) of current carriers. Such control is necessary for transistors, solar cells, semiconductor detectors and other semiconductor devices which are used in electronics and other high-tech applications. From http://www.answers.com/germanium: The properties of germanium are such that there are several important applications for this element, especially in the semiconductor industry. The first solid—state device, the transistor, was made of germanium. Single—crystal germanium is used as a substrate for vapor-phase growth of GaAs and GaAsP thin films in some light-emitting diodes. Germanium lenses and filters are used in instruments operating in the infrared region of the spectrum. Mercury-doped and copper-doped germanium are used as infrared detectors; synthetic garnets with magnetic properties may have applications for high- power microwave devices and magnetic bubble memories; and germanium additives increase usable ampere-hours in storage batteries semimetallic chemical element; symbol Ge; at. no. 32; at. wt. 72.59; m.p. 937.4°C; b.p. 2, 830°C; sp. gr. 5.323 at 25°C; valence +2 or +4. Pure germanium is a lustrous, gray-white, brittle metal/old with a diamondlike crystalline structure. It is similar in chemical and physical properties to silicon, below which it appears in Group 14 of the periodic table. Germanium is very important as a semiconductor. Transistors and integrated circuits provide the greatest use of the element; they are often made from germanium to which small amounts of arsenic, gallium, or other metals have been added. Numerous alloys containing germanium have been prepared. Germanium forms many compounds. Germanium oxide is added to glass to increase the index of refraction; such glass is used in wide-angle lenses. Since the oxide is transparent to infrared radiation, it has found use in optical instruments. Unlike most semiconductors, germanium has a small band gap, allowing it to efficiently respond to infrared light. It is therefore used in infrared sgectroscopes and other optical equipment which require extremely sensitive infrared detectors. Its oxide's index of refraction and dispersion properties make germanium useful in wide-angle camera lenses and in microscoge objective lenses. 34) What are the significant differences in the way ammeters and voltmeters are connected? An ammeter is connected in SERIES with the circuit or device under test. This requires one to open or “break” the circuit in order to insert the ammeter. A voltmeter is connected in PARALLEL with the circuit or device under test. This is a non—invasive measurement and as such does not require modifying the circuit or device under test. 5/; 6/4 3 5/ /F M} Ahfiéfffl [65%; .2, £34 Fm A— flé/Z/fifl 0F 4/ M M/ , pgrgz/mg new 079% $5 777%r #1 flaw/.44 T/Maflfifl 7/744: MET/£1, &= ,Z’ = 2";A)({//w/u ) (6‘0 fa) : FE] /‘7//\l 3 € ) gfm/gin/ 7.4/0 fla/AIZI 0/ A» f/gczz/c C/zca/r, A Voé nag/£1 fléflflr /2, $7 Fm :22 .r. //I ffl‘xf Cu {Kt/VT fl/f/JK/fléfl g/ Aw Aflfléflfz /.f /0 afl / fl/frzz/y #15 27¢ 6/9629 KM/y/ng + 7/79; 6mm; W/fl FKOWAé/ germ/649w 27a? 22/; flé/A/7'J , kA/ow/J .° Van: = /2,_§'V 77/76 = 20 fee I = /0/nr4 \A/ 3 V6; 0) I : Q/f CZ) Sell/é (2) F01 62 7 Q 5" I'f z /0AvA ZOJ‘ec) Q = ZZOOflvC //\/7’:) 0) .° W: ([2,5V>(200/h6) '-' (7.2.5.7; ...
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