18th Century Colonies - AP U.S. History: Unit 1.5...

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AP U.S. History: Unit 1.5 HistorySage.com Colonial Society in the 18 th Century I. Characteristics of 18 th century British Colonial America A. Enormous population growth: common feature among the 13 colonies 1. Demographic changes resulted in shift in the balance of power between the colonies and England. 2. 1700 = less than 300,000 people; 2.5 million by 1775 (20% black) 3. High fertility rate: ratio of English immigrants for each American-born colonist dropped a. 20 to 1 in 1700. b. 3 to 1 in 1775. 4. Largest colonies were Virginia, Massachusetts, Pennsylvania, North Carolina and Maryland 5. Only four major cities: Philadelphia, NY, Boston, Charleston 6. 90% lived in rural areas in early 18 th century; 80% by American Revolution B. America as a melting pot: The "Old Immigration" 1. Most mixed population in perhaps all the world despite being mainly English a. South held 90% of slaves b. New England the least ethnically mixed; predominantly Puritan c. Middle colonies most ethnically mixed d. Outside of New England, about 1/2 of population non-English in 1775 2. Population breakdown: 1790 a. English & Welsh (66%): English was dominant language; British institutions b. African: 20% of population by 1775; mostly concentrated in the South c. Scots Irish (and Scots Highlanders) -- 6% i. Presbyterian Scots Lowlanders -- Hated the British for uprooting them earlier from Scotland. -- Most were frustrated and poor ii. Thousands came to America in early 1700s (mostly in Pennsylvania) iii. Squatted on frontier lands and fought Native Americans . -- Eventually moved south into backcountry of Maryland, Western Virginia, & western Carolinas; fought Indians on the frontier Use space below for notes
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HistorySage.com APUSH Lecture Notes Page 2 Unit 1.5 18 th Century Colonies iv. Scots Highlanders – small population; loyal to the crown; relatively well-off c. German (5%) i. Fled religious persecution, economic oppression, and war in early 1700's ii. Settled mostly in Pennsylvania; comprised 1/3 of its population iii. Primarily Lutheran iv. No loyalty to British crown. v. Retained German language and customs. d. Dutch (2%): concentrated in New York, New Jersey e. Irish (2%) f. French (0.4%) g. All other whites (0.3%) (Swedes, Jews, Swiss) C. Structure of Colonial Society 1. Stratification emerged by the mid 18th century; not as much prior to 1750 a. Small Upper-class: i. Aristocratic plantation owners in South dominated wealth and influence ii. Merchants, lawyers, officials, and clergymen dominated the North b. Yeoman farmers constituted the majority of the population : owned land c. Small merchants, manual workers, and hired hands: many did not own land d. Indentured servants and jailbirds: limited to no influence e. Slaves: 20% of population 2. Americans on average had the highest standard of living in the world . II. Commerce and Trade
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This note was uploaded on 01/11/2012 for the course HISTORY US History taught by Professor Bevington during the Fall '09 term at Franklin Pierce.

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18th Century Colonies - AP U.S. History: Unit 1.5...

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