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Unformatted text preview: AP U.S. History: Unit 9.5 HistorySage.com Politics in the 1890s Themes of the Gilded Age: Politics: hard vs. soft money ('70s &amp; '90s); tariff ('80s); corruption due to greed, patronage &amp; trusts (throughout late 19 th c.) Industrialism: U.S. became the worlds most powerful economy by 1890s: railroads, steel, oil, electricity, banking America was transformed from an agrarian nation to an urban nation between 1865 and 1920. Urbanization: millions of &quot;New Immigrants&quot; came from Southern and Eastern Europe, mostly to work in factories. Unions and Reform movements sought to curb the injustices of industrialism. Farmers increasingly lost ground in the new industrial economy and eventually organized (Populism) The &quot;Last West&quot;: farming, mining, &amp; cattle raising By 1900 society had become more stratified into classes than any time before or since. I. Benjamin Harrisons presidency A. Thomas B. Reed , Republican Speaker of the House; &quot;Czar Reed&quot; 1. Perhaps most powerful Speaker in history of Congress -- Manipulated House rules to prevent Democrats from blocking legislation. 2. Presided over the &quot;Billion Dollar&quot; Congress that created expensive legislation-- Republicans sought to spend money to offset surplus created by high tariffs. B. Sherman Anti-Trust Act passed in 1890 (see Industrialism chapter) C. Sherman Silver Purchase Act of 1890 (system of bimetallism) 1. Treasury would approximately double minimum amount of silver purchased under the Bland-Allison Act. 2. Western pro-silver advocates agreed to support a protective tariff in return for eastern support for a silver bill. a. Mining states hated limited silver purchasing under Bland- Allison Act. b. Easterners were eager to increase tariffs and increase profits -- Yet, concerned inflated currency through increased silver purchases c. Result: Did not significantly inflate currency Use space below for notes HistorySage.com APUSH Lecture Notes Page 2 Unit 9.5: 1890s D. McKinley Tariff Bill (1890) 1. Republicans reward for supporting Sherman Silver Purchase Act. 2. Raised tariffs to highest peacetime level: 48% . 3. Reduced surplus by giving a 2-cent subsidy to American sugar producers, increased pensions to GAR and reduced taxes on tobacco. 4. Raised tariffs on agricultural products. a. Farmers not impressed since Europeans could not compete with American farmers anyway. b. Some eastern manufacturers raised prices before the law went into effect. c. Democratic party used the tariff issue to attack the Republicans 5. McKinley and 77 other Republican congressmen lost the 1890 mid-term elections for Congress . a. New Congress included 9 members of the Farmers Alliances b. Tariff issue replaced by silver issue as the main issue in 1890s....
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