The_Basics_Of_Patch_Antennas - TheBasicsofPatchAntennas B

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The Basics of Patch Antennas By D. Orban and G.J.K. Moernaut Orban Microwave Products www.orbanmicrowave.com Introduction This article introduces some of the basic concepts of patch antennas. The main focus will be on explaining the general properties of patch antennas by using the simple rectangular probe­fed patch. It will cover topics including: principles of operation, impedance matching, radiation pattern and related aspects, bandwidth, and efficiency. Properties of a Basic Microstrip Patch A microstrip or patch antenna is a low­profile antenna that has a number of advantages over other antennas ­­ it is lightweight, inexpensive, and easy to integrate with accompanying electronics. While the antenna can be 3­D in structure (wrapped around an object, for example), the elements are usually flat; hence their other name, planar antennas. Note that a planar antenna is not always a patch antenna. The following drawing shows a patch antenna in its basic form: a flat plate over a ground plane (usually a PC board). The center conductor of a coax serves as the feed probe to couple electromagnetic energy in and/or out of the patch. The electric field distribution of a rectangular patch excited in its fundamental mode is also indicated. electrical field probe feed feedline fringe field fringe field top layer substrate ground plane z y x The electric field is zero at the center of the patch, maximum (positive) at one side, and minimum (negative) on the opposite side. It should be mentioned that the minimum and
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maximum continuously change side according to the instantaneous phase of the applied signal. The electric field does not stop abruptly at the patch's periphery as in a cavity; rather, the fields extend the outer periphery to some degree. These field extensions are known as fringing fields and cause the patch to radiate. Some popular analytic modeling techniques for patch antennas are based on this leaky­cavity concept. Therefore, the fundamental mode of a rectangular patch is often denoted using cavity theory as the TM10 mode. Since this notation frequently causes confusion, we will briefly explain it. TM stands for transversal magnetic field distribution. This means that only three field components are considered instead of six. The field components of interest are: the electric field in the z direction, and the magnetic field components in x and y direction using a Cartesian coordinate system, where the x and y axes are parallel with the ground­plane and the z­axis is perpendicular. In general, the modes are designated as TMnmz. The z value is mostly omitted since the electric field variation is considered negligible in the z­axis. Hence TMnm remains with n and m the field variations in x and y direction. The field variation in the y direction (impedance width direction) is negligible; thus m is 0. And the field has one minimum­to­maximum variation in the x direction (resonance length direction); thus n is 1 in the case of the fundamental. Hence the
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This note was uploaded on 01/11/2012 for the course ELECTRIC 101 taught by Professor Chen during the Spring '11 term at National Chiao Tung University.

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The_Basics_Of_Patch_Antennas - TheBasicsofPatchAntennas B

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