Chapter 14 - Chapter 14 THE UNITING OF EUROPE Europe and...

Chapter 14
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Chapter 14 THE UNITING OF EUROPE Europe and America are pulling apart; they diverge on many issues. Europe is moving toward unity on two tracks, the economic and the military, the European Union and expansion of NATO to 19 members. But it will take some doing before Europe is truly united. Right in its own backyard, Europe could not handle Yugoslavia's breakup. The Balkans are an unhappy case study. UNPROFOR was ineffective; only the U.S.-led IFOR and KFOR worked. NATO's purpose is unclear. Set up by the North Atlantic Treaty in 1949 and now with 16 members, NATO helped West Europe militarily, economically, and psychologically to resist Soviet influence. With the end of the Cold War, however, the fear that held NATO together has receded in Europe. NATO is simultaneously expanding and hollowing out, a dangerous combination. The hopeful movement in West Europe is toward unity. Starting with the Marshall Plan and progressing through the Coal and Steel Community, Europe's six core countries in 1957 founded the Common Market , which now prefers European Union. Now numbering 15, EU members have cut tariffs among themselves to make a single economy. Tired of using Eurodollars , the EU in 1991 set up the EMU , which created the new euro currency and ECB . Politically, the EU is bureaucratic rather than democratic and ripe for reform. France's de Gaulle limited supranationality and vetoed Britain's entry. He also ordered NATO and U.S. bases out of France. Some Europeans want to keep national sovereignty; others want a full federation. Many wonder whether the EU should be wider or deeper. Like NATO, the EU looks to expand eastward,
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