Chapter 13 - Chapter 13 Biotechnology 13.1 What is...

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Chapter 13 Biotechnology 13.1 What is biotechnology? 13.2 How does DNA recombine occur in nature? 13.3 How is biotechnology used in forensics science? 13.4 How is biotechnology used in agriculture?
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Chapter 13 Biotechnology 13.5 How is biotechnology used to learn about the human genome? 13.6 How is biotechnology used for medical diagnosis and treatment? 13.7 What are the major ethical issues surround modern biotechnology?
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13.1 What Is Biotechnology? Any industrial or commercial use or alternation of organisms, cells or biological molecules to achieve specific practical goals Genetic engineering – modification of genetic material GMOs (transgenic) – genetically modified organisms
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Sexual Reproduction Due to crossing over during meiosis, each chromosome in a gamete contains a mixture of alleles from the two parental chromosomes Thus, eggs and sperm contain recombinant DNA
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Transformation Bacteria can naturally take up DNA from the environment ( transformation ) and integrate the new genes into the genome ( recombination ) Transformation with DNA fragment Transformation with plasmid
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Transformation Small circular DNA molecules ( plasmids ) carry supplementary genes Plasmid genes may allow bacteria to grow in novel environments Plasmid genes may enhance virulence of bacteria in establishing an infection Plasmid genes may confer resistance to antimicrobial drugs
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Viral Transfer of DNA Viral life cycle 1. Viral particle invades host cell 2. Viral DNA is replicated 3. Viral protein molecules are synthesized 4. Offspring viruses are assembled and break out of the host cell
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Viral Transfer of DNA Viral transfer of DNA Viruses may package some genes from host cell into viral particles during assembly Infection of new host cell injects genes from previous host, allowing for recombination Viruses may transfer DNA between bacteria and between Eukaryotic species
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Biotechnology and Forensics Forensics is the science of criminal and victim identification DNA technology has allowed forensic science to identify victims and criminals from trace biological samples Genetic sequences of any human individual are unique DNA analysis reveals patterns that identify people with a high degree of accuracy
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13.3 How Is Biotechnology Used in Forensics? The Polymerase Chain Reaction Amplifies DNA PCR copies a specific DNA sequence Need high temperatures to separate DNA strands But then a special DNA polymerase that wouldn’t fall apart at high temperatures is needed
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Polymerase Chain Reaction Four steps of a PCR cycle 1. Template strand separation The test tube is heated to 90-95 o C to cause the double stranded template DNA to separate into single strands…
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Four steps of a PCR cycle 2. Binding of the primers The temperature is lowered to 50
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This note was uploaded on 01/11/2012 for the course BIO 160 taught by Professor Howardhaemmerle during the Fall '12 term at Bellevue College.

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Chapter 13 - Chapter 13 Biotechnology 13.1 What is...

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