AST101PPT(exam4)

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Unformatted text preview: Welcome back to Astronomy 101 Copyright 2011 Duncan Brown. Copyright images used under "fair use" (17 United Stated Code, Section 107). Distribution or reproduction of this material outside blackboard.syr.edy is prohibited. The Solar System Copyright 2011 Duncan Brown. Copyright images used under "fair use" (17 United Stated Code, Section 107). Distribution or reproduction of this material outside blackboard.syr.edy is prohibited. • About 99.8% of the mass of the Solar System is in the Sun • R = 108 R and M = 333,000 M • Composed (mostly) of hydrogen and helium Sun Earth Sun Earth Copyright 2011 Duncan Brown. Copyright images used under "fair use" (17 United Stated Code, Section 107). Distribution or reproduction of this material outside blackboard.syr.edy is prohibited. Copyright 2011 Duncan Brown. Copyright images used under "fair use" (17 United Stated Code, Section 107). Distribution or reproduction of this material outside blackboard.syr.edy is prohibited. Planetary Orbits Copyright 2011 Duncan Brown. Copyright images used under "fair use" (17 United Stated Code, Section 107). Distribution or reproduction of this material outside blackboard.syr.edy is prohibited. • All planets have nearly circular orbits orbiting the Sun counterclockwise • All planets orbit the Sun in nearly the same plane • The Sun rotates in a counterclockwise direction Copyright 2011 Duncan Brown. Copyright images used under "fair use" (17 United Stated Code, Section 107). Distribution or reproduction of this material outside blackboard.syr.edy is prohibited. Terrestrial Planets Mercury M = 0.006 ME Venus M = 0.82 ME Earth Mars ME = 6 x 1024 kg M = 0.11 ME Copyright 2011 Duncan Brown. Copyright images used under "fair use" (17 United Stated Code, Section 107). Distribution or reproduction of this material outside blackboard.syr.edy is prohibited. Jovian Planets Jupiter M = 320 ME Saturn M = 95 ME Uranus Neptune M = 15 ME M = 17 ME Copyright 2011 Duncan Brown. Copyright images used under "fair use" (17 United Stated Code, Section 107). Distribution or reproduction of this material outside blackboard.syr.edy is prohibited. Jupiter R = 11 RE Saturn Uranus Neptune R = 6400 km Copyright 2011 Duncan Brown. Copyright images used under "fair use" (17 United Stated Code, Section 107). Distribution or reproduction of this material outside blackboard.syr.edy is prohibited. Density = mass / volume Which of these objects has the highest density? (A) (B) (C) Copyright 2011 Duncan Brown. Copyright images used under "fair use" (17 United Stated Code, Section 107). Distribution or reproduction of this material outside blackboard.syr.edy is prohibited. D = 5.5 g/cm3 Jovian planets are less dense than terrestrial planets D = 1.3 g/cm3 Copyright 2011 Duncan Brown. Copyright images used under "fair use" (17 United Stated Code, Section 107). Distribution or reproduction of this material outside blackboard.syr.edy is prohibited. • Terrestrial planets are smaller, closer to the Sun and more dense • Jovian planets are larger, far from the Sun and less dense Copyright 2011 Duncan Brown. Copyright images used under "fair use" (17 United Stated Code, Section 107). Distribution or reproduction of this material outside blackboard.syr.edy is prohibited. A planet with the properties given in the table could be classified as Mass 0.92 MEarth Radius 1.1 REarth Density 3.8 g/cm3 Semi-major axis 1.4 A.U. (A) Jovian (B) Terrestrial (C) Neither Copyright 2011 Duncan Brown. Copyright images used under "fair use" (17 United Stated Code, Section 107). Distribution or reproduction of this material outside blackboard.syr.edy is prohibited. A planet with the properties given in the table could be classified as Mass 410 MEarth Radius 12.1 REarth Density 1.3 g/cm3 Semi-major axis 6.5 A.U. (A) Jovian (B) Terrestrial (C) Neither Copyright 2011 Duncan Brown. Copyright images used under "fair use" (17 United Stated Code, Section 107). Distribution or reproduction of this material outside blackboard.syr.edy is prohibited. A planet with the properties given in the table could be classified as Mass 0.0021 MEarth Radius 0.18 REarth Density 2.0 g/cm3 Semi-major axis 39 A.U. (A) Jovian (B) Terrestrial (C) Neither Copyright 2011 Duncan Brown. Copyright images used under "fair use" (17 United Stated Code, Section 107). Distribution or reproduction of this material outside blackboard.syr.edy is prohibited. • The small terrestrial planets are made of rocks and metals • The large, gaseous Jovian planets are composed of hydrogen, helium and hydrogen compounds (water, ammonia, methane) Copyright 2011 Duncan Brown. Copyright images used under "fair use" (17 United Stated Code, Section 107). Distribution or reproduction of this material outside blackboard.syr.edy is prohibited. Pluto Copyright 2011 Duncan Brown. Copyright images used under "fair use" (17 United Stated Code, Section 107). Distribution or reproduction of this material outside blackboard.syr.edy is prohibited. • Pluto is much smaller and less massive than the other planets • It’s orbit is inclined to the ecliptic plane • It’s composition of ice and rock is very different from the other planets Copyright 2011 Duncan Brown. Copyright images used under "fair use" (17 United Stated Code, Section 107). Distribution or reproduction of this material outside blackboard.syr.edy is prohibited. • Pluto is a dwarf planet • It is from a family of large iceballs living in region called the Kuiper belt Copyright 2011 Duncan Brown. Copyright images used under "fair use" (17 United Stated Code, Section 107). Distribution or reproduction of this material outside blackboard.syr.edy is prohibited. Comets and Asteroids • Vast numbers of rocky asteroids and icy comets are found in the Solar system • They are concentrated in three distinct regions Copyright 2011 Duncan Brown. Copyright images used under "fair use" (17 United Stated Code, Section 107). Distribution or reproduction of this material outside blackboard.syr.edy is prohibited. Oort cloud Asteroid belt Kuiper belt Copyright 2011 Duncan Brown. Copyright images used under "fair use" (17 United Stated Code, Section 107). Distribution or reproduction of this material outside blackboard.syr.edy is prohibited. The Solar Nebular Hypothesis Copyright 2011 Duncan Brown. Copyright images used under "fair use" (17 United Stated Code, Section 107). Distribution or reproduction of this material outside blackboard.syr.edy is prohibited. Copyright 2011 Duncan Brown. Copyright images used under "fair use" (17 United Stated Code, Section 107). Distribution or reproduction of this material outside blackboard.syr.edy is prohibited. • The Big Bang produced all the matter in the Universe • Most of this matter was hydrogen with a very small amount of helium, lithium, and beryllium Copyright 2011 Duncan Brown. Copyright images used under "fair use" (17 United Stated Code, Section 107). Distribution or reproduction of this material outside blackboard.syr.edy is prohibited. If the Sun had formed in the very early universe, would we exist? • A. Yes • B. No Copyright 2011 Duncan Brown. Copyright images used under "fair use" (17 United Stated Code, Section 107). Distribution or reproduction of this material outside blackboard.syr.edy is prohibited. • Early generations of stars produced the heavier elements by nuclear fusion and supernovae explosions • The elements thrown off by these explosions are recycled in galaxies and form molecular clouds • The solar system formed from a cloud called the solar nebula Copyright 2011 Duncan Brown. Copyright images used under "fair use" (17 United Stated Code, Section 107). Distribution or reproduction of this material outside blackboard.syr.edy is prohibited. Copyright 2011 Duncan Brown. Copyright images used under "fair use" (17 United Stated Code, Section 107). Distribution or reproduction of this material outside blackboard.syr.edy is prohibited. Which pie chart correctly shows the composition of the Solar nebula? Copyright 2011 Duncan Brown. Copyright images used under "fair use" (17 United Stated Code, Section 107). Distribution or reproduction of this material outside blackboard.syr.edy is prohibited. • Gravity caused part of the molecular cloud to collapse Copyright 2011 Duncan Brown. Copyright images used under "fair use" (17 United Stated Code, Section 107). Distribution or reproduction of this material outside blackboard.syr.edy is prohibited. As the early solar nebula evolved to form our solar system, it... • A. shrank • B. expanded • C. stayed the same size Copyright 2011 Duncan Brown. Copyright images used under "fair use" (17 United Stated Code, Section 107). Distribution or reproduction of this material outside blackboard.syr.edy is prohibited. As the early solar nebula evolved to form our solar system, it... • A. cooled down • B. heated up • C. stayed the same temperature Copyright 2011 Duncan Brown. Copyright images used under "fair use" (17 United Stated Code, Section 107). Distribution or reproduction of this material outside blackboard.syr.edy is prohibited. As the early solar nebula evolved to form our solar system, it... • A. rotated more slowly • B. rotated more rapidly • C. rotated at the same rate Copyright 2011 Duncan Brown. Copyright images used under "fair use" (17 United Stated Code, Section 107). Distribution or reproduction of this material outside blackboard.syr.edy is prohibited. Copyright 2011 Duncan Brown. Copyright images used under "fair use" (17 United Stated Code, Section 107). Distribution or reproduction of this material outside blackboard.syr.edy is prohibited. • As it collapsed, the solar nebula flattened • The cloud of gas collapses into a protoplanetary disk • The temperature and density are highest at the center of the disk Copyright 2011 Duncan Brown. Copyright images used under "fair use" (17 United Stated Code, Section 107). Distribution or reproduction of this material outside blackboard.syr.edy is prohibited. • In the surrounding material the gaseous material is too sparse to clump under gravity alone • The material in the gas begins to condense forming the seeds of planets Copyright 2011 Duncan Brown. Copyright images used under "fair use" (17 United Stated Code, Section 107). Distribution or reproduction of this material outside blackboard.syr.edy is prohibited. Why are there two types of planet? Copyright 2011 Duncan Brown. Copyright images used under "fair use" (17 United Stated Code, Section 107). Distribution or reproduction of this material outside blackboard.syr.edy is prohibited. Welcome back to Astronomy 101 Copyright 2011 Duncan Brown. Copyright images used under "fair use" (17 United Stated Code, Section 107). Distribution or reproduction of this material outside blackboard.syr.edy is prohibited. To be classified as a planet, a solar system object must meet three criteria: (A) only orbits the Sun (B) be sufficiently massive so that gravity pulls it into a spherical shape (C) have cleared its neighborhood of smaller objects Which of these criteria is not met by the Moon, causing it not to be classified as a planet? Copyright 2011 Duncan Brown. Copyright images used under "fair use" (17 United Stated Code, Section 107). Distribution or reproduction of this material outside blackboard.syr.edy is prohibited. To be classified as a planet, a solar system object must meet three criteria: (A) only orbits the Sun (B) be sufficiently massive so that gravity pulls it into a spherical shape (C) have cleared its neighborhood of smaller objects Which of these criteria is not met by Pluto, causing it not to be classified as a planet? Copyright 2011 Duncan Brown. Copyright images used under "fair use" (17 United Stated Code, Section 107). Distribution or reproduction of this material outside blackboard.syr.edy is prohibited. To be classified as a planet, a solar system object must meet three criteria: (A) only orbits the Sun (B) be sufficiently massive so that gravity pulls it into a spherical shape (C) have cleared its neighborhood of smaller objects Which of these criteria is not met by the asteroid 243 Ida, causing it not to be classified as a planet? Copyright 2011 Duncan Brown. Copyright images used under "fair use" (17 United Stated Code, Section 107). Distribution or reproduction of this material outside blackboard.syr.edy is prohibited. Copyright 2011 Duncan Brown. Copyright images used under "fair use" (17 United Stated Code, Section 107). Distribution or reproduction of this material outside blackboard.syr.edy is prohibited. Why are there two types of planet? Copyright 2011 Duncan Brown. Copyright images used under "fair use" (17 United Stated Code, Section 107). Distribution or reproduction of this material outside blackboard.syr.edy is prohibited. • To begin forming planets we need solid materials • The temperature of the solar nebula must be below the melting temperature of the materials which form the planet Copyright 2011 Duncan Brown. Copyright images used under "fair use" (17 United Stated Code, Section 107). Distribution or reproduction of this material outside blackboard.syr.edy is prohibited. Hydrogen and Helium • 98 % of the Solar nebula (by mass) • Do not condense in the nebula Copyright 2011 Duncan Brown. Copyright images used under "fair use" (17 United Stated Code, Section 107). Distribution or reproduction of this material outside blackboard.syr.edy is prohibited. Hydrogen Compounds • 1.4 % of the Solar nebula (by mass) • Condense at temperatures < 150 K Copyright 2011 Duncan Brown. Copyright images used under "fair use" (17 United Stated Code, Section 107). Distribution or reproduction of this material outside blackboard.syr.edy is prohibited. Rock • 0.4 % of the Solar nebula by mass • Condenses at 500 - 1300K Copyright 2011 Duncan Brown. Copyright images used under "fair use" (17 United Stated Code, Section 107). Distribution or reproduction of this material outside blackboard.syr.edy is prohibited. Metals • 0.2 % of the Solar nebula by mass • Condense at 1000 - 1600 K Copyright 2011 Duncan Brown. Copyright images used under "fair use" (17 United Stated Code, Section 107). Distribution or reproduction of this material outside blackboard.syr.edy is prohibited. • The solar nebula is hotter near the Sun Rocks and metals condense Hydrogen and helium remain gaseous everywhere Hydrogen compounds condense Frost line 150 K Copyright 2011 Duncan Brown. Copyright images used under "fair use" (17 United Stated Code, Section 107). Distribution or reproduction of this material outside blackboard.syr.edy is prohibited. Which of the following plots most accurately shows the temperature distribution in the Solar System at the time of planet formation? Copyright 2011 Duncan Brown. Copyright images used under "fair use" (17 United Stated Code, Section 107). Distribution or reproduction of this material outside blackboard.syr.edy is prohibited. • Seeds of rock and metal condense into planetesimals • These rocky planetesimals grow into the terrestrial planets Copyright 2011 Duncan Brown. Copyright images used under "fair use" (17 United Stated Code, Section 107). Distribution or reproduction of this material outside blackboard.syr.edy is prohibited. Dust grains form in the disk which stick together via static electricity When the grains The largest reach planetesimals approximately clear their orbits 1km in size and grow into gravity takes over planets Copyright 2011 Duncan Brown. Copyright images used under "fair use" (17 United Stated Code, Section 107). Distribution or reproduction of this material outside blackboard.syr.edy is prohibited. • Rock and metal are quite rare in the Solar system • The terrestrial planets never grew massive enough for their gravity to capture the abundant hydrogen and helium Copyright 2011 Duncan Brown. Copyright images used under "fair use" (17 United Stated Code, Section 107). Distribution or reproduction of this material outside blackboard.syr.edy is prohibited. • Beyond the frost line it is cold enough for hydrogen compounds to condense into ices • Hydrogen compounds are much more abundant than metal and rock • This allows the icy planetesimals to grow to much larger sizes • Once they get big enough their gravity can capture hydrogen and helium from the solar nebula Copyright 2011 Duncan Brown. Copyright images used under "fair use" (17 United Stated Code, Section 107). Distribution or reproduction of this material outside blackboard.syr.edy is prohibited. • All the Jovian planets grew from icy planetesimals about 10 times the mass of the Earth • Jupiter and Saturn captured so much hydrogen and helium that their icy seeds only form a small fraction of their mass today • 3% for Jupiter and 10% for Saturn Copyright 2011 Duncan Brown. Copyright images used under "fair use" (17 United Stated Code, Section 107). Distribution or reproduction of this material outside blackboard.syr.edy is prohibited. Which of the following types of planets would form in the early solar system at locations hot enough for liquid water to boil into a gas? (A) Terrestrial rocky planets (B) Jovian gas giant planets Copyright 2011 Duncan Brown. Copyright images used under "fair use" (17 United Stated Code, Section 107). Distribution or reproduction of this material outside blackboard.syr.edy is prohibited. Temperature and Formation p103-104 • • Work with a partner • Discuss the concepts with one another • Come to a consensus answer you both agree on Read the instructions and questions carefully Copyright 2011 Duncan Brown. Copyright images used under "fair use" (17 United Stated Code, Section 107). Distribution or reproduction of this material outside blackboard.syr.edy is prohibited. Which of the planets could have included water at the time of formation? • A. Mars,Venus, Earth and Mars • B. Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus and Neptune • C. all of the planets • D. none of the planets Copyright 2011 Duncan Brown. Copyright images used under "fair use" (17 United Stated Code, Section 107). Distribution or reproduction of this material outside blackboard.syr.edy is prohibited. The densities of planets close to the Sun... (A) are low because they became massive enough during formation to retain H and He (B) low because they are small (C) high because they are quite massive (D) high because they formed out of high density materials with high melting points Copyright 2011 Duncan Brown. Copyright images used under "fair use" (17 United Stated Code, Section 107). Distribution or reproduction of this material outside blackboard.syr.edy is prohibited. The densities of planets far from the Sun... (A) are low because they became massive enough during formation to retain H and He (B) low because they are small (C) high because they are quite massive (D) high because they formed out of high density materials with high melting points Copyright 2011 Duncan Brown. Copyright images used under "fair use" (17 United Stated Code, Section 107). Distribution or reproduction of this material outside blackboard.syr.edy is prohibited. As planet Earth formed, temperatures in this region were around 600K. Thus Earth formed out of... • A. all substances with • C. all substances with • B. all naturally • D. all naturally melting temperature below 600 K occurring substances except H and He melting temperatures above 600 K occurring substances Copyright 2011 Duncan Brown. Copyright images used under "fair use" (17 United Stated Code, Section 107). Distribution or reproduction of this material outside blackboard.syr.edy is prohibited. As planet Mercury formed, temperatures in this region were around 1400K. Thus Mercury formed out of... • A. all substances with • C. all substances with • B. all naturally • D. all naturally melting temperature below 1400 K occurring substances except H and He melting temperatures above 1400 K occurring substances Copyright 2011 Duncan Brown. Copyright images used under "fair use" (17 United Stated Code, Section 107). Distribution or reproduction of this material outside blackboard.syr.edy is prohibited. If a planetesimal formed out of rock and ice which of the following would be a likely appearance? Copyright 2011 Duncan Brown. Copyright images used under "fair use" (17 United Stated Code, Section 107). Distribution or reproduction of this material outside blackboard.syr.edy is prohibited. The asteroids are found in the asteroid belt are composed of rocks and metals. Comets found in the Kuiper belt are composed mostly of ices. Which of the following is true? (A) comets formed inside the frost line and are more abundant than asteroids (B) comets formed outside the frost line and are less abundant that asteroids (C) comets formed outside the frost line and are more abundant than asteroids (D) comets formed inside the frost line and are less abundant than asteroids Copyright 2011 Duncan Brown. Copyright images used under "fair use" (17 United Stated Code, Section 107). Distribution or reproduction of this material outside blackboard.syr.edy is prohibited. What ended the growth of the Jovian planets? Copyright 2011 Duncan Brown. Copyright images used under "fair use" (17 United Stated Code, Section 107). Distribution or reproduction of this material outside blackboard.syr.edy is prohibited. Copyright 2011 Duncan Brown. Copyright images used under "fair use" (17 United Stated Code, Section 107). Distribution or reproduction of this material outside blackboard.syr.edy is prohibited. • Eventually, the pressure and temperature at the center of the nebula increased enough to start nuclear fusion in the Sun • The remaining material in the solar nebula was blown away into space by the Solar wind ending planet formation Copyright 2011 Duncan Brown. Copyright images used under "fair use" (17 United Stated Code, Section 107). Distribution or reproduction of this material outside blackboard.syr.edy is prohibited. Collapse of the solar nebula Condensation of grains Growth of planetesimals Clearing of debris Solar System today Copyright 2011 Duncan Brown. Copyright images used under "fair use" (17 United Stated Code, Section 107). Distribution or reproduction of this material outside blackboard.syr.edy is prohibited. The steps of the formation sequence for a terrestrial planet are shown below (out of order). What is the correct order of these steps? accretion of the planetesimals condensation of grains clearing of debris collapse of the nebula (A) collapse, condensation, accretion, clearing (B) collapse, accretion, condensation, clearing (C) accretion, clearing, collapse, condensation (D) accretion, condensation, clearing, collapse Copyright 2011 Duncan Brown. Copyright images used under "fair use" (17 United Stated Code, Section 107). Distribution or reproduction of this material outside blackboard.syr.edy is prohibited. Our theory of solar system formation is not supported by the fact that... (A) all the planets orbit in the same plane (B) all the planets orbit in the same direction (C) most planets rotate in the same direction they are revolving (D) there are an equal number of terrestrial and jovian planets Copyright 2011 Duncan Brown. Copyright images used under "fair use" (17 United Stated Code, Section 107). Distribution or reproduction of this material outside blackboard.syr.edy is prohibited. Welcome Back to Astronomy 101 Copyright 2011 Duncan Brown. Copyright images used under "fair use" (17 United Stated Code, Section 107). Distribution or reproduction of this material outside blackboard.syr.edy is prohibited. Check the date, time and place of the final on MySlice Copyright 2011 Duncan Brown. Copyright images used under "fair use" (17 United Stated Code, Section 107). Distribution or reproduction of this material outside blackboard.syr.edy is prohibited. There are no make ups for the final, so don’t miss it! Copyright 2011 Duncan Brown. Copyright images used under "fair use" (17 United Stated Code, Section 107). Distribution or reproduction of this material outside blackboard.syr.edy is prohibited. Collapse of the solar nebula Condensation of grains Growth of planetesimals Clearing of debris Solar System today Copyright 2011 Duncan Brown. Copyright images used under "fair use" (17 United Stated Code, Section 107). Distribution or reproduction of this material outside blackboard.syr.edy is prohibited. The Solar Nebula Hypothesis is not supported by the fact that... (A) all the planets orbit in the same plane (B) all the planets orbit in the same direction (C) most planets rotate in the same direction they are revolving (D) there are an equal number of terrestrial and jovian planets Copyright 2011 Duncan Brown. Copyright images used under "fair use" (17 United Stated Code, Section 107). Distribution or reproduction of this material outside blackboard.syr.edy is prohibited. Jupiter’s Interior Structure Gaseous hydrogen Liquid hydrogen Metallic hydrogen Ice and rock core Copyright 2011 Duncan Brown. Copyright images used under "fair use" (17 United Stated Code, Section 107). Distribution or reproduction of this material outside blackboard.syr.edy is prohibited. Inside Uranus Hydrogen/helium atmosphere containing gaseous methane Icy Mantle (water, methane,ammonia) Rocky core Copyright 2011 Duncan Brown. Copyright images used under "fair use" (17 United Stated Code, Section 107). Distribution or reproduction of this material outside blackboard.syr.edy is prohibited. Remaining gas in the solar nebula was blown away into space by the Solar wind ending planet formation Copyright 2011 Duncan Brown. Copyright images used under "fair use" (17 United Stated Code, Section 107). Distribution or reproduction of this material outside blackboard.syr.edy is prohibited. • The density of the nebula is smaller further out, so it took longer for the planetesimals to grow • Uranus and Neptune had less time to accrete hydrogen and helium before the Solar wind blew it away • Only one third of Uranus’ mass is captured hydrogen and helium: most of its mass is from the original icy planetesimal Copyright 2011 Duncan Brown. Copyright images used under "fair use" (17 United Stated Code, Section 107). Distribution or reproduction of this material outside blackboard.syr.edy is prohibited. The Terrestrial Planets Copyright 2011 Duncan Brown. Copyright images used under "fair use" (17 United Stated Code, Section 107). Distribution or reproduction of this material outside blackboard.syr.edy is prohibited. Mercury The Moon The surfaces of both Mercury and the Moon are covered with impact craters Copyright 2011 Duncan Brown. Copyright images used under "fair use" (17 United Stated Code, Section 107). Distribution or reproduction of this material outside blackboard.syr.edy is prohibited. • Early in the formation of the solar system planetesimals battered the young planets leaving impact craters Copyright 2011 Duncan Brown. Copyright images used under "fair use" (17 United Stated Code, Section 107). Distribution or reproduction of this material outside blackboard.syr.edy is prohibited. Impact crater formation rate Which of the following curves best represents the cratering rate over time in our solar system? (C) (D) (B) (A) 4 3 2 1 0 Time before present (billions of years) Copyright 2011 Duncan Brown. Copyright images used under "fair use" (17 United Stated Code, Section 107). Distribution or reproduction of this material outside blackboard.syr.edy is prohibited. Copyright 2011 Duncan Brown. Copyright images used under "fair use" (17 United Stated Code, Section 107). Distribution or reproduction of this material outside blackboard.syr.edy is prohibited. A giant impact blasted off the material that formed the Moon Copyright 2011 Duncan Brown. Copyright images used under "fair use" (17 United Stated Code, Section 107). Distribution or reproduction of this material outside blackboard.syr.edy is prohibited. The steps of the formation sequence for a terrestrial planet are shown below (out of order). What is the correct order of these steps? accretion of the planetesimals condensation of grains clearing of debris collapse of the nebula (A) collapse, condensation, accretion, clearing (B) collapse, accretion, condensation, clearing (C) accretion, clearing, collapse, condensation (D) accretion, condensation, clearing, collapse Copyright 2011 Duncan Brown. Copyright images used under "fair use" (17 United Stated Code, Section 107). Distribution or reproduction of this material outside blackboard.syr.edy is prohibited. Mercury Copyright 2011 Duncan Brown. Copyright images used under "fair use" (17 United Stated Code, Section 107). Distribution or reproduction of this material outside blackboard.syr.edy is prohibited. Venus Copyright 2011 Duncan Brown. Copyright images used under "fair use" (17 United Stated Code, Section 107). Distribution or reproduction of this material outside blackboard.syr.edy is prohibited. Earth Copyright 2011 Duncan Brown. Copyright images used under "fair use" (17 United Stated Code, Section 107). Distribution or reproduction of this material outside blackboard.syr.edy is prohibited. Mars Copyright 2011 Duncan Brown. Copyright images used under "fair use" (17 United Stated Code, Section 107). Distribution or reproduction of this material outside blackboard.syr.edy is prohibited. The surfaces of the larger terrestrial planets look very different to the Moon and Mercury Copyright 2011 Duncan Brown. Copyright images used under "fair use" (17 United Stated Code, Section 107). Distribution or reproduction of this material outside blackboard.syr.edy is prohibited. • The Moon and the terrestrial planets all looked quite similar when they were young • The changes in the surfaces of Venus, Earth and Mars are caused by geological activity Copyright 2011 Duncan Brown. Copyright images used under "fair use" (17 United Stated Code, Section 107). Distribution or reproduction of this material outside blackboard.syr.edy is prohibited. Earth is a terrestrial planet. Since the densest materials sink to the Earth’s core, the core is composed of... (A) very dense rocks (B) rocks, metals and ices (C) metals (D) rocks and metals Copyright 2011 Duncan Brown. Copyright images used under "fair use" (17 United Stated Code, Section 107). Distribution or reproduction of this material outside blackboard.syr.edy is prohibited. • The sinking of metals towards the Earth’s core is called differentiation • This released a huge amount of gravitational potential energy as heat • When the Earth was about 500 million years old, it was completely molten Copyright 2011 Duncan Brown. Copyright images used under "fair use" (17 United Stated Code, Section 107). Distribution or reproduction of this material outside blackboard.syr.edy is prohibited. 400 km Crust (lightest rocks) Mantle (dense rocks) 2700 km 5150 km 6400 km Molten Outer Core Inner Core Copyright 2011 Duncan Brown. Copyright images used under "fair use" (17 United Stated Code, Section 107). Distribution or reproduction of this material outside blackboard.syr.edy is prohibited. • As the Earth’s liquid metal outer core rotates, it generates a magnetic field Solar wind N S Earth’s magnetic field protects our atmosphere from the solar wind Copyright 2011 Duncan Brown. Copyright images used under "fair use" (17 United Stated Code, Section 107). Distribution or reproduction of this material outside blackboard.syr.edy is prohibited. • Early in the terrestrial planet’s lives, they were hot and molten • Some of this heat is still present today • This internal heat drives geological activity • Over millions of years warm, solid rock can deform and flow Copyright 2011 Duncan Brown. Copyright images used under "fair use" (17 United Stated Code, Section 107). Distribution or reproduction of this material outside blackboard.syr.edy is prohibited. Cool Crust Lower Mantle Convection Hot Very hot Hottest Molten Outer Core Inner Core Convection Copyright 2011 Duncan Brown. Copyright images used under "fair use" (17 United Stated Code, Section 107). Distribution or reproduction of this material outside blackboard.syr.edy is prohibited. New sea floor crust created Hot rock rises Molten crust rises and erupts Erosion from wind and rain washes material into the oceans as new continental crust Subduction of seafloor under continent Copyright 2011 Duncan Brown. Copyright images used under "fair use" (17 United Stated Code, Section 107). Distribution or reproduction of this material outside blackboard.syr.edy is prohibited. • Earth’s crust is cool rigid rock, floating on warmer, softer rock • Plate tectonics acts like a giant conveyer belt, continually recycling the Earth’s lithosphere and building up continents Copyright 2011 Duncan Brown. Copyright images used under "fair use" (17 United Stated Code, Section 107). Distribution or reproduction of this material outside blackboard.syr.edy is prohibited. Smaller objects cool faster than larger objects Copyright 2011 Duncan Brown. Copyright images used under "fair use" (17 United Stated Code, Section 107). Distribution or reproduction of this material outside blackboard.syr.edy is prohibited. Mercury Venus Mercury is has lost its internal heat and so is geologically dead Copyright 2011 Duncan Brown. Copyright images used under "fair use" (17 United Stated Code, Section 107). Distribution or reproduction of this material outside blackboard.syr.edy is prohibited. A moon covered with numerous and very old craters created by meteorite impacts likely (A) has no ocean to cover the craters (B) orbits a large, Jupiter sized planet (C) has a cold, solid interior (D) has no protective magnetic field Copyright 2011 Duncan Brown. Copyright images used under "fair use" (17 United Stated Code, Section 107). Distribution or reproduction of this material outside blackboard.syr.edy is prohibited. Earth’s Changing Surface p99-101 • • Work with a partner • Discuss the concepts with one another • Come to a consensus answer you both agree on Read the instructions and questions carefully Copyright 2011 Duncan Brown. Copyright images used under "fair use" (17 United Stated Code, Section 107). Distribution or reproduction of this material outside blackboard.syr.edy is prohibited. The change in position of the continents over time is primarily caused by... (A) continental plates floating on the ocean (B) mantle material circulating inside the Earth (C) Earth slowly shrinking as it cools (D) global wind patterns and ocean currents Copyright 2011 Duncan Brown. Copyright images used under "fair use" (17 United Stated Code, Section 107). Distribution or reproduction of this material outside blackboard.syr.edy is prohibited. • Different amounts of geological activity have shaped the terrestrial planets • Earth has the most geological activity of the terrestrial planets • Mercury has the least of geological activity Copyright 2011 Duncan Brown. Copyright images used under "fair use" (17 United Stated Code, Section 107). Distribution or reproduction of this material outside blackboard.syr.edy is prohibited. Welcome back to Astronomy 101 Copyright 2011 Duncan Brown. Copyright images used under "fair use" (17 United Stated Code, Section 107). Distribution or reproduction of this material outside blackboard.syr.edy is prohibited. Which planet is closest to the Sun? (A) Mercury (B) Venus (C) Earth (D) Mars Copyright 2011 Duncan Brown. Copyright images used under "fair use" (17 United Stated Code, Section 107). Distribution or reproduction of this material outside blackboard.syr.edy is prohibited. Which planet receives the most intense light from the Sun? (A) Mercury (B) Venus (C) Earth (D) Mars Copyright 2011 Duncan Brown. Copyright images used under "fair use" (17 United Stated Code, Section 107). Distribution or reproduction of this material outside blackboard.syr.edy is prohibited. Which planet has the highest average surface temperature? (A) Mercury (B) Venus (C) Earth (D) Mars Copyright 2011 Duncan Brown. Copyright images used under "fair use" (17 United Stated Code, Section 107). Distribution or reproduction of this material outside blackboard.syr.edy is prohibited. Temperature 167° C Temperature 470° C Mercury has almost no atmosphere Venus is covered by a thick atmosphere Copyright 2011 Duncan Brown. Copyright images used under "fair use" (17 United Stated Code, Section 107). Distribution or reproduction of this material outside blackboard.syr.edy is prohibited. Venus is covered by a thick atmosphere Temperature 470° C Earth has a nitrogen/oxygen atmosphere Temperature 15° C Mars has almost no atmosphere Temperature -63° C Copyright 2011 Duncan Brown. Copyright images used under "fair use" (17 United Stated Code, Section 107). Distribution or reproduction of this material outside blackboard.syr.edy is prohibited. • Even though Venus is further from the Sun, it has a much higher average temperature than Mercury • The intensity of sunlight alone cannot explain this difference • The difference is due to an atmospheric effect Copyright 2011 Duncan Brown. Copyright images used under "fair use" (17 United Stated Code, Section 107). Distribution or reproduction of this material outside blackboard.syr.edy is prohibited. Where do planetary atmospheres come from? Copyright 2011 Duncan Brown. Copyright images used under "fair use" (17 United Stated Code, Section 107). Distribution or reproduction of this material outside blackboard.syr.edy is prohibited. • The terrestrial planets were formed from rocks and metals • Comets in the outer region of the solar system formed from hydrogen compounds • Some of these comets impacted the early Earth depositing water and gasses that formed the oceans and our atmosphere • On Earth, plants turned carbon dioxide into oxygen through photosynthesis Copyright 2011 Duncan Brown. Copyright images used under "fair use" (17 United Stated Code, Section 107). Distribution or reproduction of this material outside blackboard.syr.edy is prohibited. • Since Mars is smaller than the Earth it’s interior has cooled • Without a liquid core Mars has no magnetic field to protect its atmosphere from the solar wind Copyright 2011 Duncan Brown. Copyright images used under "fair use" (17 United Stated Code, Section 107). Distribution or reproduction of this material outside blackboard.syr.edy is prohibited. Why is Venus so much warmer than the Earth? Copyright 2011 Duncan Brown. Copyright images used under "fair use" (17 United Stated Code, Section 107). Distribution or reproduction of this material outside blackboard.syr.edy is prohibited. Which wavelengths of sunlight reach the surface of the Earth? (A) x-ray, visible, infrared, radio (B) gamma, x-ray, ultraviolet, visible (C) ultraviolet, visible, infrared, radio (D) gamma, ultraviolet, visible, infrared Copyright 2011 Duncan Brown. Copyright images used under "fair use" (17 United Stated Code, Section 107). Distribution or reproduction of this material outside blackboard.syr.edy is prohibited. Which wavelengths of sunlight is most intense at the surface of the Earth? (A) ultraviolet (B) visible (C) infrared (D) radio Copyright 2011 Duncan Brown. Copyright images used under "fair use" (17 United Stated Code, Section 107). Distribution or reproduction of this material outside blackboard.syr.edy is prohibited. Which of the following does the Earth’s surface emit most strongly? (A) ultraviolet (B) visible (C) infrared (D) radio Copyright 2011 Duncan Brown. Copyright images used under "fair use" (17 United Stated Code, Section 107). Distribution or reproduction of this material outside blackboard.syr.edy is prohibited. • Part of the visible sunlight reaching the Earth’s surface is reflected into space • Part of the visible light is absorbed by the ground • This heating warms the Earth to -16° C • The Earth’s average temperature is 15° C Copyright 2011 Duncan Brown. Copyright images used under "fair use" (17 United Stated Code, Section 107). Distribution or reproduction of this material outside blackboard.syr.edy is prohibited. Copyright 2011 Duncan Brown. Copyright images used under "fair use" (17 United Stated Code, Section 107). Distribution or reproduction of this material outside blackboard.syr.edy is prohibited. Heat radiated into space balances incoming energy Sunlight from space CO2 and H20 absorb infrared and heat up the atmosphere Heat in the atmosphere warms the Earth Visible sunlight is absorbed, warming the Earth’s surface Greenhouse effect traps heat Heat is radiated as infrared light Copyright 2011 Duncan Brown. Copyright images used under "fair use" (17 United Stated Code, Section 107). Distribution or reproduction of this material outside blackboard.syr.edy is prohibited. Handout on Greenhouse Effect • • Work with a partner • Discuss the concepts with one another • Come to a consensus answer you both agree on Read the instructions and questions carefully Copyright 2011 Duncan Brown. Copyright images used under "fair use" (17 United Stated Code, Section 107). Distribution or reproduction of this material outside blackboard.syr.edy is prohibited. If Earth didn’t have an atmosphere, what would happen to its temperature? (A) it would go up a little (B) it would stay the same (C) it would go down a little Copyright 2011 Duncan Brown. Copyright images used under "fair use" (17 United Stated Code, Section 107). Distribution or reproduction of this material outside blackboard.syr.edy is prohibited. Terrestrial Atmosphere Com Venus Venus Carbon dioxide Earth Earth Oxygen Nitrogen Temperature 470° C Nitrogen! Temperature 15° C Oxygen Copyright 2011 Duncan Brown. Copyright images used under "fair use" (17 United Stated Code, Section 107). Distribution or reproduction of this material outside blackboard.syr.edy is prohibited. • Venus’ atmosphere contains huge amounts of carbon dioxide • The high temperature is due to a runaway greenhouse effect Copyright 2011 Duncan Brown. Copyright images used under "fair use" (17 United Stated Code, Section 107). Distribution or reproduction of this material outside blackboard.syr.edy is prohibited. Why doesn’t carbon dioxide dominate Earth’s atmosphere? Copyright 2011 Duncan Brown. Copyright images used under "fair use" (17 United Stated Code, Section 107). Distribution or reproduction of this material outside blackboard.syr.edy is prohibited. Most of the Earth’s carbon dioxide is locked up in rocks Copyright 2011 Duncan Brown. Copyright images used under "fair use" (17 United Stated Code, Section 107). Distribution or reproduction of this material outside blackboard.syr.edy is prohibited. Cool Crust Lower Mantle Convection Hot Very hot Hottest Molten Outer Core Inner Core Convection Copyright 2011 Duncan Brown. Copyright images used under "fair use" (17 United Stated Code, Section 107). Distribution or reproduction of this material outside blackboard.syr.edy is prohibited. Atmospheric CO2 dissolves in rainwater Rainfall erodes rocks and carries carbon minerals to sea where they form limestone Volcanoes outgas CO2 Carbonate rocks subduct releasing CO2 Copyright 2011 Duncan Brown. Copyright images used under "fair use" (17 United Stated Code, Section 107). Distribution or reproduction of this material outside blackboard.syr.edy is prohibited. • When the Earth warms, rainfall increases trapping more of the CO2 released from volcanos, cooling the Earth • When the Earth cools, less CO 2 is trapped warming the Earth • This is known as the carbon dioxide cycle Copyright 2011 Duncan Brown. Copyright images used under "fair use" (17 United Stated Code, Section 107). Distribution or reproduction of this material outside blackboard.syr.edy is prohibited. Why are scientists so worried about greenhouse gasses if they keep us from freezing? Copyright 2011 Duncan Brown. Copyright images used under "fair use" (17 United Stated Code, Section 107). Distribution or reproduction of this material outside blackboard.syr.edy is prohibited. If we add more greenhouse gasses to a planets atmosphere... (A) the planet’s temperature will not change (B) the gasses will absorb more visible light from the Sun, warming the planet (C) the gasses will absorb more of the planet’s radiated heat in the atmosphere, warming the planet (D) the gasses will absorb incoming light from the Sun, cooling the planet Copyright 2011 Duncan Brown. Copyright images used under "fair use" (17 United Stated Code, Section 107). Distribution or reproduction of this material outside blackboard.syr.edy is prohibited. Copyright 2011 Duncan Brown. Copyright images used under "fair use" (17 United Stated Code, Section 107). Distribution or reproduction of this material outside blackboard.syr.edy is prohibited. Copyright 2011 Duncan Brown. Copyright images used under "fair use" (17 United Stated Code, Section 107). Distribution or reproduction of this material outside blackboard.syr.edy is prohibited. • Global temperatures have tracked CO 2 concentration for last 500,000 years • Current CO concentration is now higher than it has been in at least 500,000 years 2 Copyright 2011 Duncan Brown. Copyright images used under "fair use" (17 United Stated Code, Section 107). Distribution or reproduction of this material outside blackboard.syr.edy is prohibited. x 30 = Annual carbon dioxide emissions from humans are thirty times natural emissions from volcanoes Copyright 2011 Duncan Brown. Copyright images used under "fair use" (17 United Stated Code, Section 107). Distribution or reproduction of this material outside blackboard.syr.edy is prohibited. Since carbon dioxide is removed from the atmosphere by geological processes, then... (A) carbon dioxide can be removed from the Earth’s atmosphere very quickly (B) carbon dioxide can be removed from the Earth’s atmosphere over a moderate amount of time (C) carbon dioxide is removed from the Earth’s atmosphere very slowly Copyright 2011 Duncan Brown. Copyright images used under "fair use" (17 United Stated Code, Section 107). Distribution or reproduction of this material outside blackboard.syr.edy is prohibited. http://www.pnas.org/cgi/doi/10.1073/pnas.0812721106 It can take thousands of years for CO2 to be removed from the Earth’s atmosphere Copyright 2011 Duncan Brown. Copyright images used under "fair use" (17 United Stated Code, Section 107). Distribution or reproduction of this material outside blackboard.syr.edy is prohibited. • Human activity is rapidly increasing the atmospheric concentration of CO2 • We understand the basic mechanism of the greenhouse effect and have seen its effect on other planets • Measured global temperatures are rising Copyright 2011 Duncan Brown. Copyright images used under "fair use" (17 United Stated Code, Section 107). Distribution or reproduction of this material outside blackboard.syr.edy is prohibited. t r s , s e . s t e e l y FIG. 2. (a) As in Fig. 1a except for natural forcings (volcano ⇤ solar) and response to natural forcings as a residual [(volcano ⇤ solar ⇤ GHG ⇤ sulfate ⇤ ozone) (GHG ⇤ sulfate ⇤ ozone)]; (b) same Copyright 2011 Duncan Brown. Copyright images used under "fair use" (17 United Stated Code, Section 107). Distribution or reproduction of this material outside blackboard.syr.edy is prohibited. • Computer models of the Earth’s climate which take into account natural and human emissions match climate data well • The rise in temperature is consistent with human activity being the cause Copyright 2011 Duncan Brown. Copyright images used under "fair use" (17 United Stated Code, Section 107). Distribution or reproduction of this material outside blackboard.syr.edy is prohibited. Copyright 2011 Duncan Brown. Copyright images used under "fair use" (17 United Stated Code, Section 107). Distribution or reproduction of this material outside blackboard.syr.edy is prohibited. • Increases in average temperatures can result in dramatic climate changes • Some regions may cool while other regions experience more rainfall or become deserts • We can’t predict exactly what will happen Copyright 2011 Duncan Brown. Copyright images used under "fair use" (17 United Stated Code, Section 107). Distribution or reproduction of this material outside blackboard.syr.edy is prohibited. uncertainty x inertia = danger Copyright 2011 Duncan Brown. Copyright images used under "fair use" (17 United Stated Code, Section 107). Distribution or reproduction of this material outside blackboard.syr.edy is prohibited. • Cutting CO emissions seems prudent • “When your house is on fire, worrying 2 about the arson investigations seems ridiculous... just put the fire out.” • Best short-term move is anything that reduces CO2 emissions Copyright 2011 Duncan Brown. Copyright images used under "fair use" (17 United Stated Code, Section 107). Distribution or reproduction of this material outside blackboard.syr.edy is prohibited. Can’t we just find a new planet? Copyright 2011 Duncan Brown. Copyright images used under "fair use" (17 United Stated Code, Section 107). Distribution or reproduction of this material outside blackboard.syr.edy is prohibited. Copyright 2011 Duncan Brown. Copyright images used under "fair use" (17 United Stated Code, Section 107). Distribution or reproduction of this material outside blackboard.syr.edy is prohibited. • Kepler 22b is the first Earth-like planet to be discovered outside the solar system • It is 587 light-years from Earth • The fastest manned vehicle was Apollo 10 which reached 40,000 km/h • At this speed it would take 15 million years to reach Kepler 22b Copyright 2011 Duncan Brown. Copyright images used under "fair use" (17 United Stated Code, Section 107). Distribution or reproduction of this material outside blackboard.syr.edy is prohibited. Copyright 2011 Duncan Brown. Copyright images used under "fair use" (17 United Stated Code, Section 107). Distribution or reproduction of this material outside blackboard.syr.edy is prohibited. ...
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