Lecture+9.Jim+Crow

Lecture+9.Jim+Crow - American Race Relations Lecture 9....

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American Race Relations Lecture 9. Emergence of Jim Crow
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Main Points “Nadir of Race Relations”? Significant retraction from Reconstruction period Jim Crow is not just about segregation; it is about establishing hierarchy and control of a population Jim Crow emerged in the 1890s because of specific concerns at that time “Nadir of Race Relations” is not limited to the South; emergence of “Sundown Towns” and residential segregation throughout nation
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Search for Control: Economic Coercion Tenant farming sharecropping potential for debt peonage Revival of Vagrancy Laws Convict Leasing System and Prison Farms severe penalties for property crimes overrepresentation of blacks in prison leased out to work on various industries leasing ended in 1928; but prison farms contd
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Political Disfranchisement MS 1890 SC 1895 LA 1898 NC 1900 AL 1901 VA 1902 GA 1908
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Political Disfranchisement property requirements literacy tests poll tax “safety clauses” to protect white vote grandfather clauses understanding clauses good character clauses
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Political Disfranchisement White primaries South is only one-party restriction of participation in Democratic party primary elections to whites SC, 1896 AR 1897 GA 1898 FL and TN 1901 AL and MS 1902 KY and TX 1903 LA in 1906 OK 1907 VA 1913 NC 1915
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Effects of Vote Restriction Schemes LA 1896: 130,000 black voters LA 1904: 1,342 black voters GA 1904: 28.3 percent of blacks registered to vote GA 1910: 4.3 percent of blacks registered AL 1900: 180,000 black voters AL 1903: 3,000 black voters no more black representatives, sheriffs, justices of the peace, county commissioners, school board members, magistrates, jurors, policemen, government employees
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Social Control: De Jure Segregation slavery: blacks and whites in very close contact de facto segregation more developed in North and West in antebellum period even during 1870s to 1890 in South: no strict separation between races 1890s: de jure segregation in public transport, accommodations, schools, etc.
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Enforcement: Political Violence Lynchings from 1880s to 1950s, around 3,200 to 3,400
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Lecture+9.Jim+Crow - American Race Relations Lecture 9....

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