BIO1130 prelab4 - Vertebrate Phylogeny LAB4 TIMELINE Day of...

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Vertebrate Phylogeny Day of lab Day +1 Day +7 Day +14 Get your corrected matrix from Virtual campus) Hand in your report Collect corrected report (details TBA on website) LAB4 TIMELINE Make observations Submit matrix on Virtual Campus
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Lab outline and objectives: understand terminology associated with cladistic analysis make detailed observations concerning 12 morphological characters in nine different species of euchordates Polarize data using the lamprey as an outgroup Objectives BIO1130 – Organismal biology
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express phylogenetic information regarding the evolution of the vertebrates in a cladogram recognize homoplasies and postulate whether they are the result of convergence or reversals postulate a hypothesis regarding the evolution of endothermy in vertebrates Objectives (continued) BIO1130 – Organismal biology
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Cladogram: Branching diagram that presents the relationship between different groups based on the distribution and transmission of derived characters. Terminology 6(1) 1(1) 3(1) 2(1) 7(1) 4(1)* 4(1)* SG A B C D E F common ancesto r to all species on cladogram common ancestor to B-F branching points (speciation event) present time Past descendents 5(1) BIO1130 – Organismal biology
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BIO1130 – Organismal biology Terminology (cont’d) Monophyletic group: group that includes the common ancestor to this group plus all its descendants (also called ‘clade’). SG A B C D E F G monophyletic paraphyletic
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Character: any morphological, biochemical or behavioural feature that can be observed. Homologous characters: 2 characters are homologous if they derive from a structure present in a distant, common ancestor. Only these characters are informative to define monophyletic groups. Character states (or evolutionary stages of a character): Ancestral or plesiomorphic (also called general, primitive) Derived or apomorphic ( exclusive, advanced) Terminology (cont’d) transformation BIO1130 – Organismal biology
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Homoplasy: phenotypic similarity among different species that is not inherited from a common ancestor (non-homologous similarity): Convergence: similar feature appearing in several species that do not share a common ancestor (ex. wings in insects and birds). Reversal: when a derived character reverts to a more ancestral state within a group of species (ex: Loss of limbs in snakes) Principle of parsimony: the simplest solution is more likely to be correct (=the cladogram involving the less transformation steps is more likely to represent the actual chain of events). BIO1130 – Organismal biology Terminology (end)
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Lab 4 – Procedure Three phases: 1- Conduct a series of morphological observations (12 characters) on 9 animals 2- Record observations in table format (matrix) using the lamprey as a sister group or outgroup 3- Carry out a phylogenetic analysis of your data and construct a cladogram BIO1130 – Organismal biology
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An example of phylogenetic analysis
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BIO1130 prelab4 - Vertebrate Phylogeny LAB4 TIMELINE Day of...

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