Congition,Language,Intelligence - Chapter 9 Cognition...

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Chapter 9 Cognition, Language, and Intelligence Cognition Process of normal thinking mind Intellectual processes through which info is obtained, transformed, stored, retrieved & used Processes info Active Useful Concepts Simple & Complex Concepts Conjunctive looking for multiple features to link together to say that this object is in this category Disjunctive looking for one defining feature Natural Concepts Rosch: how do we catagorize things? Superordinate Very inclusive General category Basic Includes enough detail to recognize an object, but quickly access info about that thing & be somewhat accurate Medium degree of inclusiveness Share many attributes Share similar shapes Share motor movements Are easily named Subordinate Least inclusive Very specific Thinking & Problem Solving Problem Solving Reaching a goal that is blocked by some obstacle Often occurs in specific steps Formulating the problem Understanding what the problem is **key** Initial formulation of a problem how do you start solving a problem? Understanding & Organizing the elements of the problem Flexibly interpret Mental set set pattern of strategies that I use that may or may not be helpful; can be efficient Functional fixedness a particular kind of mental set
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Negative I can’t see an object as anything but what it was designed to do (only 1 function) Generating & Evaluating Alternative Solutions Algorithms using step by step; if you answer correctly to all of the yes/no questions, then you are guaranteed to get the right solution Heuristic reasoning Representativeness Finding characteristics in a person that are most representative of someone we already know Ex. stereoytypes Heuristic Shortcut strategies in thinking Increase efficiency, not accuracy Most common method Emotional factors in decision-making Emotional & cognitive factors determine perceptions of risk Whenever we have an emotional response & things stand out, then we overestimate the danger of plane & underestimate danger of car Creative problem-solving: convergent & divergent thinking Creativity think of other functions that object could have Convergent thinking Task only allow you to solve problem in one way Has nothing to do w/creativity, has to do with the correct answer Have specific facts & they all point to one answer Divergent thinking Has to do w/creativity Start with one problem & come up with as many solutions as possible Solutions are very subjective can be good or bad Four steps Preparation trying to get all te info I can about the problem Incubation (not necessary) if you are stuck, you leave the problem alone
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  • Spring '10
  • Staff
  • Intelligence Tests, Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale, General Intelligence, Intelligence & Achievement, (Everyday Intelligence)

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