Sum11.208.minerals - Definition of a Mineral Minerals The...

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Unformatted text preview: Definition of a Mineral Minerals The Geologic Alphabet • • • • • Natural Solid Inorganic Crystalline Structure Chemical Compound Source: E. R. Degginger/Bruce Coleman Inc. Mineral Formation Form Igneous Rocks Primary 1. Crystallize out of a magma 2. Crystallize out of water Form Sedimentary Rocks Secondary 3. Chemical Weathering 4. Metamorphism Form Metamorphic Rocks Physical Properties of Minerals A. Mineral Shape Fracture Crystal Form Quartz: Conchoidal Source: Jeffrey Scovil Mineral Cleavage Mineral Cleavage Halite - 3 planes; angle 90° Muscovite - 1 plane; angle N/A Muscovite 1 1 2 3 Source: Ed Degginger/Bruce Coleman Inc. Source: Breck P. Kent Mineral Cleavage luorite Fluorite: 4Fplanes; not 90° Fluorite Physical Properties of Minerals 1 B. Mineral Appearance 3 2 4 Color Quartz Color Quartz Powder Streak (Powder Color) Luster Hematite Metallic Highly reflected and “metal colored” Nonmetallic Vitreous Varies Pearly Resinous Earthy (Dull) Shines like glass Whitish iridescence (like a pearl) Dull shine (like wax) Surface doesn’t reflect light Source: Breck P. Kent Metallic Luster Nonmetallic Luster - Vitreous Quartz Source: E. R. Degginger/Earth Scenes Nonmetallic Luster - Earthy Optical Properties 1. Opaque 2. Translucent 3. Transparent Source: Breck P. Kent Petrologic Microscope Olivine Calcite Biotite in white light Polarized Light Quartz Mohs Hardness Scale Physical Properties of Minerals C. Mineral Strength/Density Specific Gravity (Density) Reaction to HCl (Calcite) Magnetism (Magnetite) Physical Properties of Minerals D. Other Properties Taste (Halite) Smell (Sulfur) Feel (Talc) Striations & Banding Fluorescence - White light Source: Breck P. Kent Fluorescence - UV light Source: Breck P. Kent Piezoelectricity Silicates: SiliconOxygen Tetrahedron Silicate Minerals (90% of the Earth’s Crust) Contain Silica - Silicon and Oxygen Silicates can be: Important Silicates Micas Mafic Minerals Muscovite Feldspars Low Silica (Mg, Fe) Orthoclase Dark Colored Dark colored (including black & green) Heavy weight Heavy weight Color vs. Light colored Light Colored (including white, tan, orange) Olivine Light weight Light weight Felsic Minerals High Silica (Al, K) Quartz Density Density ...
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This note was uploaded on 01/11/2012 for the course GEO 208 taught by Professor Robviens during the Summer '11 term at Bellevue College.

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