Chapter 11 - Chapter 11 Cell Communication Overview: The...

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Chapter 11 Cell Communication
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Overview: The Cellular Internet Cell-to-cell communication is essential for multicellular organisms Biologists have discovered some universal mechanisms of cellular regulation The combined effects of multiple signals determine cell response For example, the dilation of blood vessels is controlled by multiple molecules
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Viagra Microbes are a window on the role of cell signaling in the evolution of life Figure 11.1
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Evolution of Cell Signaling Yeast cells identify their mates by cell signaling α factor Receptor Exchange of mating factors. Each cell type secretes a mating factor that binds to receptors on the other cell type. 1 Mating. Binding of the factors to receptors induces changes in the cells that lead to their fusion. New a/ α cell. The nucleus of the fused cell includes all the genes from the a and a cells. 2 3 α factor Yeast cell, mating type a Yeast cell, mating type α α α a/ α a a Figure 11.2
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Signal transduction pathways Convert specific signals on a cell’s surface into cellular responses Often a series of steps Molecular details of signal transduction in yeast, mammals, bacteria and plants are very similar. ..
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Evolution of signal transduction pathways Even though the last common ancestor was over a billion years ago This suggest early versions of cell signaling developed in the ancient prokaryotes Before first multicellular organisms
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Fig. 11-3 Individual rod- shaped cells Spore-forming structure (fruiting body) Aggregation in process Fruiting bodies 0.5 mm 1 3 2
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Local and Long-Distance and Signaling Cells in a multicellular organism Usually communicate via chemical messengers Direct contact Local signaling Long-distance signaling
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Direct contact - Cell junctions Animal and plant cells can directly connect the cytoplasm of adjacent cells Plasma membranes Plasmodesmata between plant cells Gap junctions between animal cells Figure 11.3 (a) Cell junctions. Both animals and plants have cell junctions that allow molecules to pass readily between adjacent cells without crossing plasma membranes.
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Figure 11.3 (b) Cell-cell recognition. Two cells in an animal may communicate by interaction between molecules protruding from their surfaces. Direct contact - Cell-cell recognition In local signaling, animal cells may communicate via direct contact
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Animal cells communicate using local regulators (a) Paracrine signaling. A secreting cell acts on nearby target cells by discharging molecules of a local regulator (a growth factor, for example) into the extracellular fluid. (b) Synaptic signaling. A nerve cell releases neurotransmitter molecules into a synapse, stimulating the target cell. Local regulator
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Chapter 11 - Chapter 11 Cell Communication Overview: The...

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