Chapter 13 - Chapter 13 Meiosis and Sexual Life Cycles...

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Chapter 13 Meiosis and Sexual Life Cycles
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Overview: Hereditary Similarity and Variation Living organisms Are distinguished by their ability to reproduce their own kind Heredity Is the transmission of traits from one generation to the next Variation Shows that offspring differ somewhat in appearance from parents and siblings
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Concept 13.1: Offspring acquire genes from parents by inheriting chromosomes Genetics Is the scientific study of heredity and hereditary variation Genes Are the units of heredity Are segments of DNA
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Genes Genes are passed to the next generation through reproductive cells called gametes (sperm and eggs) Each gene has a specific location called a locus on a certain chromosome Most DNA is packaged into chromosomes
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Comparison of asexual and sexual reproduction In asexual reproduction One parent produces genetically identical offspring by mitosis (clones) In sexual reproduction Two parents give rise to offspring that have unique combinations of genes inherited from the two parents
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Fig. 13-2 (a) Hydra (b) Redwoods Parent Bud 0.5 mm
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Concept 13.2: Fertilization and meiosis alternate in sexual life cycles A life cycle Is the generation-to-generation sequence of stages in the reproductive history of an organism In humans Each somatic cell has 46 chromosomes, made up of two sets One set of chromosomes comes from each parent
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5 µ m Pair of homologous chromosomes Centromere Siste chromatids Figure 13.3 A karyotype Is an ordered, visual representation of the chromosomes in a cell
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Fig. 13-3b TECHNIQUE Pair of homologous replicated chromosomes Centromere Sister chromatids Metaphase chromosome 5 µm
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Chromosome terminology Homologous chromosomes Are the two chromosomes composing a pair One from each parent Have the same inherited characteristics for each locus Autosomes are homologous chromosomes not directly involved in determining gender
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Sex chromosomes Are distinct from each other in their characteristics Are represented as X and Y Determine the gender of the individual, XX being female, XY being male
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A diploid cell The number of chromosomes in a single set is represented by n . A diploid cell has two sets (2n) of each of its chromosomes In a human has 46 chromosomes (2 n = 46)
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In a cell in which DNA synthesis has occurred All the chromosomes are duplicated and thus each consists of two identical sister chromatids Figure 13.4 Key Maternal set of chromosomes ( n
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This note was uploaded on 01/11/2012 for the course BIOL 211 taught by Professor Bronwynscott during the Winter '10 term at Bellevue College.

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Chapter 13 - Chapter 13 Meiosis and Sexual Life Cycles...

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