Nutrition Study Guide
1.) Essential amino acids for adults – (cannot be synthesized in the body) 9 essential
amino acids histadine, isoleucine, leucine, lysine, methionine, phenylalanine,
threonine, tryptophan, and valine.
(MATT V PHILL)
(arginine used to be
considered essential – not now)
2.) Proteins are needed for the growth and repair of all tissues in the body.
For building new tissues in growing children, during pregnancy, in
athletic training and after injury.
For upkeep of tissues already built and
replacement of regular losses such as skin, hair, and nails.
water and acid-base balance.
As a precursor for enzymes, antibodies, some
hormones, and one of the B vitamins. For milk formation when mothers
If the diet doesn’t provide enough carbs and fats to meet the energy
needs, proteins are burned for energy.
3.) RDA is based on 0.8 g/kg of body weight per day.
Take your weight in pounds
and divide by 2.2 to get kg.
4.) 3 important substances synthesized by amino acids within the cell –
5.) Cereal grains – low in lysine – not a complete protein.
6.) Complementary proteins – 2 or more protein foods whose amino acid
composition complement each other so that the essential amino acids missing
from each are supplied by the other. Ex.
Beans and rice
7.) Legume that contains the most complete protein: dried beans and peas
8.) Nitrogen equilibrium – the amount of nitrogen excreted equals the amount of
nitrogen eaten in protein.
The diet contains enough, or more, to meet body needs
for protein. * All essential amino acids must be present in adequate amounts.
Positive nitrogen balance – nitrogen intake in food is more than the amount of
nitrogen being excreted.
This happens during growth periods and recovery from a
Negative nitrogen balance – more nitrogen is being excreted than is being taken in
During starvation, untreated diabetes, fever, restricted diets.
9.) Complete proteins are those foods that contain all the essential amino acids in the
correct amounts and in the correct proportions to maintain life and support growth
when used as the sole source of protein food.
* All animal proteins are complete
All of the essential amino acids must be present at about the same time with
enough calories to make a complete protein.
Have to have enough calories!
10.) Kwashiorkor is malnutrition caused by protein deficiency.
Growth slows, hair
loses color, and skin is scaly and had sores, body swells with edema, easily gets
Happens between birth and age 2.
- PKU is an inborn error of metabolism.
Defect must be found close to birth – can
start low phenylalanine diet 1 or under – child will usually be ok.
The child needs
to know what to eat, can never grow out of it.