Unformatted text preview: EMERGENCY
Dr .Ashraf Fouda Egypt Damietta General Hospital
E. mail : [email protected] SOURCE S.O.G.C.
February 2004 INTRODUCTION
Emergency contraception (EC) is any method of contraception which is used after intercourse and before the potential time of implantation INTRODUCTION
As these methods work prior to implantation, they are not abortifacients. Emergency contraception is a backup method for occasional use, and should not be used as a regular method of birth control. OPTIONS
There are 2 methods of emergency contraception: 1. Hormonal methods, which involve the use of emergency contraceptive pills (ECPs), and 2. The postcoital insertion of a copper intrauterine device (IUD). OPTIONS Two hormonal preparations are : One contains only the progestin levonorgestrel, while the other is a 2. Combined preparation containing both ethinyl estradiol and levonorgestrel.
The levonorgestrelonly method, (The regimen consists of 2 doses of 750 µg levonorgestrel taken orally 12 hours apart). OPTIONS Yuzpe method in use since the 1970s, it consists of the oral administration of 2 doses of 100 µg ethinyl estradiol (EE) and 500 µg levonorgestrel 12 hours apart.
Ovral tablets (each containing 50 µg ethinyl estradiol and 250 µg levonorgestrel) are most commonly used to provide these doses. OPTIONS
The Yuzpe and levonorgestrelonly methods have been shown in randomized trials to reduce the risk of pregnancy by approximately 75 and 85% respectively.
This does not mean that 25% of women using the Yuzpe method will become pregnant. EFFECTIVENESS
It means that, if 100 women had unprotected intercourse once, during the second or third week of menstrual cycle, 8 of them would be likely to become pregnant, but that only 2 would become pregnant (a reduction of 75%) after use of the Yuzpe method. A single dose of 1.5 mg of levonorgestrel appears to be as effective as the standard 2dose levonorgestrel regimen. EFFECTIVENESS
Although they have generally been used only up to 72 hours after intercourse, both hormonal methods of EC are effective when taken between 72 and 120 hours after unprotected intercourse.
The effectiveness when used after 72 hours seems to be slightly lower. EFFECTIVENESS Decline significantly with increasing delay between unprotected intercourse and the initiation of treatment :Levonorgestrel EC prevented
Levonorgestrel EC prevented
95% of pregnancies when used within 24 hours of intercourse, 85% when used 25 to 48 hours after intercourse, and 58% when used 49 to 72 hours after intercourse. EFFECTIVENESS 1.
3. The corresponding figures for the Yuzpe method were: 77% when used within 24 hours of intercourse, 36% when used within 25 to 48 hours after intercourse, and 31%when used 49 to 72 hours after intercourse. EFFECTIVENESS
A metaanalysis has demonstrated that the effectiveness of postcoital IUDs approaches 100%, significantly higher than the effectiveness of hormonal EC. MECHANISM OF ACTION
MECHANISM OF ACTION Theoretically, EC could interfere with: Follicle maturation; The ovulatory process; 3. Cervical mucus; 4. Sperm migration; 5. Corpus luteum sufficiency; 6. Endometrial receptivity; 7. Fertilization; and 8. Zygote development, transport, and adhesion.
2. MECHANISM OF ACTION
The mechanism of action may differ not only with the different EC methods, but also within each method, depending upon when it is given relative to the time of both intercourse and ovulation. INDICATIONS
Hormonal EC should be considered for any woman wishing to avoid pregnancy who presents within 5 days of unprotected or inadequately protected sexual intercourse.
A postcoital IUD insertion can be considered up to 7 days after unprotected intercourse. Appropriate indications
8. Failure to use a contraceptive method
Condom breakage or leakage
Dislodgement of a diaphragm or cervical cap
Two or more missed birth control pills
Depo-Provera injection over 1 week late
Ejaculation on the external genitalia
Mistimed fertility awareness
Sexual assault when the woman is not using
reliable Because it is difficult to determine the infertile time of the cycle with certainty, EC should be provided to a woman who is concerned about her risk of pregnancy regardless of the cycle day of exposure. Although ECPs are not recommended as a regular form of contraception, repeat use poses no known health risks and should not be a reason for denying women access to treatment. CONTRAINDICATIONS
The only absolute contraindication to the use of emergency hormonal contraception is known pregnancy. CONTRAINDICATIONS
The effect of ECP use in women already pregnant on the outcome of pregnancy is unknown, but pregnancies in which the fetus has been exposed to oral contraceptives (OCs) have shown no evidence of teratogenicity. CONTRAINDICATIONS
No substantial increased risk for developing venous thromboembolism has been found with combined hormonal EC. CONTRAINDICATIONS
levonorgestrel The levonorgestrel only method carries no theoretical risk, it is the preferred option for women with contraindications to estrogen such as those with :
1. Known thrombophilia, 2. A history of stroke or heart attack, 3. Migraine headache with neurological symptoms, or 4. Smokers over age CONTRAINDICATIONS If insertion of an IUD is considered, a preexisting pregnancy must be excluded. This may require a sensitive urine pregnancy test or assay of serum human chorionic gonadotrophin (hCG). There should be : No history of recent PID
2. Low risk for sexually transmitted infection, and 3. No evidence on examination of vaginal or cervical infection.
1. SIDE EFFECTS
SIDE EFFECTS 1.
3. The common side effects of hormonal emergency contraception are gastrointestinal. The levonorgestrel method has a significantly lower incidence than the Yuzpe method, of: Nausea (23% versus 50%), Vomiting (5% versus 18%), Dizziness, and fatigue . SIDE EFFECTS
The antiemetic meclizine has been shown to reduce the risk of nausea when taken orally in a dose of 50 mg 1 hour before the first dose of the Yuzpe method, but its use increases the incidence of drowsiness. SIDE EFFECTS
Less common side effects of both methods include: headache, bloating, abdominal cramps, and spotting or bleeding.
Most women will have menstrual bleeding within 3 weeks of taking ECPs. SIDE EFFECTS 1.
5. Possible complications of post
coital IUD insertion include:
Pelvic pain, Abnormal bleeding, Pelvic infection, Perforation and Expulsion. MYTHS AND MISCONCEPTIONS
MYTHS AND MISCONCEPTIONS
Emergency contraceptive pills cause a “miniabortion.”
Fact: Emergency contraceptive pills have no effect on an established pregnancy. They act prior to implantation and therefore are not abortifacients. MYTHS AND MISCONCEPTIONS
If emergency contraceptive pills are If emergency contraceptive pills are too easy to obtain, women will “abuse” them.
Women who are supplied with emergency contraceptive pills in advance of need will use them appropriately and are not more likely to abandon regular forms of birth control. MYTHS AND MISCONCEPTIONS
Emergency contraceptive pills have Emergency contraceptive pills have high doses of hormones and are dangerous to use.
Fact: The brief onetime dose of hormone in emergency contraceptive pills is extremely safe and can be used by virtually any woman who needs it. PROVIDING EMERGENCY PROVIDING EMERGENCY CONTRACEPTION
To determine whether EC is indicated, the unprotected intercourse should occurred within the time frame when EC is effective. The risk for having a preexisting pregnancy should be assessed by determining the timing and character of her last menstrual period. PROVIDING EMERGENCY CONTRACEPTION
Rarely, a urine pregnancy test may be necessary to rule out pregnancy.
A history of previous unprotected intercourse during the current cycle should not preclude the use of EC to lower risk related to unprotected intercourse within the therapeutic window for EC. PROVIDING EMERGENCY CONTRACEPTION
Healthcare providers should also discuss broader sexual health concerns, such as risks for sexually transmitted infections, and need for ongoing birth control. PROVIDING EMERGENCY CONTRACEPTION
Testing for chlamydia infection at the time of presentation for EC has been shown to detect most cases. It should be considered for highrisk groups (e.g., women under age 30) when reliable followup cannot be guaranteed. PROVIDING EMERGENCY CONTRACEPTION Women should be informed about the potential side effects of EC, and Should be advised that hormonal EC will not prevent pregnancy resulting from unprotected intercourse in the days or weeks following treatment. PROVIDING EMERGENCY CONTRACEPTION
A barrier method such as the condom can be used for the remainder of the current menstrual cycle, and a Regular contraceptive method can be initiated at the beginning of the next cycle if the woman desires. PROVIDING EMERGENCY CONTRACEPTION
A woman who wishes to begin using OCs may be provided with a prescription to start with her next period or the next day following the use of ECPs.
She should use a condom until she has taken the oral contraceptive pill for 7 consecutive days. FOLLOWUP
Women should be advised to have a pregnancy test if they do not experience normal menstrual bleeding by 21 days after treatment (28 days if she began using OCs after taking ECPs). TROUBLESHOOTING
Women who experience nausea or vomiting after taking hormonal EC should be advised to take an antiemetic such as meclizine. Using the levonorgestrelonly method as a singledose regimen (1.5 mg orally) obviates the need for a second dose if nausea occurs, and may be preferred for this reason. TROUBLESHOOTING
If it is likely that a woman may forget to take her second dose of the 2dose regimen, the singledose levonorgestrel regimen should be recommended. If the second dose is forgotten, it can be taken up to 24 hours after the first without significant change in pharmacokinetics compared to the 12
hour dosing schedule. DRUG INTERACTIONS
Although theoretically the serum concentrations of the ECP hormones are affected by the use of drugs such as rifampicin and certain anticonvulsants, the efficacy of ECPs in this situation is uncertain. DRUG INTERACTIONS
A case report of a woman taking warfarin who used the levonorgestrelonly ECP described a subsequent significant increase in anticoagulant effect. SUMMARY STATEMENTS
Women who have had unprotected intercourse and wish to prevent pregnancy can be offered use of hormonal emergency contraception up to 5 days after intercourse, (Level II) or Insertion of a copper IUD up to 7 days after intercourse, to reduce the risk of pregnancy. (Level II) SUMMARY STATEMENTS The levonorgestrel emergency The levonorgestrel emergency contraception regimen is more effective and causes fewer side effects than the Yuzpe (ethinyl estradiol–levonorgestrel) regimen. (Level I) SUMMARY STATEMENTS
One double dose of levonorgestrel One double dose of levonorgestrel emergency contraception (1.5 mg) is as effective as the regular 2dose levonorgestrel regimen (0.75 mg each dose), with no difference in side effects. (Level I) SUMMARY STATEMENTS
Advance provision of hormonal Advance provision of hormonal emergency contraception increases the use of emergency contraception without decreasing the use of regular contraception.
(Level II) SUMMARY STATEMENTS A pelvic examination is A pelvic examination is not a prerequisite to providing emergency contraception. (Level III) RECOMMENDATIONS
RECOMMENDATIONS Because the efficacy of hormonal emergency contraception may be higher if used sooner, it should be started as soon as possible after an act of unprotected intercourse. (Grade A) RECOMMENDATIONS Hormonal emergency contraception Hormonal emergency contraception should be available without a prescription in: 1. Pharmacies, 2. Family planning clinics, 3. Emergency rooms, and 4. School health programs. (Grade B) RECOMMENDATIONS
Users of emergency contraception should be evaluated for pregnancy if menses have not begun within 21 days following treatment. (Grade A) RECOMMENDATIONS
Women and men of reproductive age should be counselled about emergency contraception. Women should be offered a prescription in advance of need. (Grade B) ...
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