identifyandtreatcoldw

identifyandtreatcoldw - Combat Life Saver Combat Lesson 23...

Info iconThis preview shows page 1. Sign up to view the full content.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
This is the end of the preview. Sign up to access the rest of the document.

Unformatted text preview: Combat Life Saver Combat Lesson 23 IDENTIFY AND TREAT COLD INJURIES Compiled and edited by, 2LT John C. Miller, PA-C Lesson 23 Lesson IDENTIFY AND TREAT COLD INJURIES INTRODUCTION Cold injuries have always been a threat to military Cold forces operating in cold climates. In addition to frostbite (which occurs in freezing weather), there are several cold injuries such as trench foot, chilblain, and hypothermia which can occur even when the temperature is above freezing. temperature IDENTIFY AND TREAT COLD INJURIES COLD a a a TASK Identify the proper procedures for treating a cold Identify injury casualty. injury CONDITION Given written items pertaining to the identification and Given treatment of cold injuries. treatment STANDARD Score 70 or more points on the 100-point written Score examination. examination. IDENTIFY SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS OF IDENTIFY CHILBLAIN a a a Skin exposed to cool temperatures (50 degrees F or Skin lower). lower). Acutely red, swollen, hot, tender, and/or itching skin. Open sores or bleeding lesions from continued Open exposure. exposure. TREAT A CASUALTY WITH TREAT CHILBLAIN a a a a Apply local warming (put bare hands over the Apply affected area on the face, put affected hands inside the uniform under the armpits, etc.). the Do not rub or massage the affected area. Apply a field dressing to lesions (sores). Have the casualty examined by medical personnel Have when the opportunity presents itself. when IDENTIFY SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS OF IDENTIFY IMMERSION SYNDROME a a a a a Hand or foot in water for an extended time. Affected hand or foot may have blisters, swelling, Affected redness, and bleeding. redness, First phase: Hand or foot is cold and without pain. Second phase: Affected limb feels burning hot and Affected has shooting pains. has Third phase: Pale skin, bluish coloring around the Pale nailbeds and lips, weak pulse. nailbeds TREAT A CASUALTY WITH IMMERSION SYNDROME IMMERSION a a a Dry the affected part immediately. Remove wet clothing and replace with dry, warm Remove clothing. clothing. Rewarm the affected area gradually in warm air. • Do not rub or massage the affected hand or foot. a a a Elevate the affected part to reduce swelling. Protect the casualty from additional injury. Evacuate casualty to a medical treatment facility as Evacuate soon as practical. soon IDENTIFY SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS OF IDENTIFY FROSTBITE a a a a a a Flesh has been exposed to freezing temperatures Flesh (below 32 degrees F). (below Usually occurs on the feet, toes, nose, ears, chin, Usually cheeks, forehead, fingers, hands, and wrists. cheeks, Superficial Frostbite A reddish (in light-skinned individuals) or grayish (in reddish dark-skinned individuals) area on exposed skin. dark-skinned A sudden blanching (whitening) of the affected area. A tingling sensation, followed by numbness. IDENTIFY SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS OF IDENTIFY FROSTBITE a a a a a Deep Frostbite Total lack of feeling in the affected (frozen) tissue. Pale, yellowish, waxy-looking skin. Solid flesh (feels wooden to the touch). Red-violet discoloration, blisters, and sloughing of Red-violet affected skin may occur (usually 1 to 5 days after the initial injury). initial TREAT A CASUALTY WITH FROSTBITE FROSTBITE a a a Move the casualty to a sheltered area. Loosen constricting clothing. Remove jewelry on the affected limb, if applicable. (A Remove ring on a swollen finger could interfere with blood circulation.). circulation.). TREAT A CASUALTY WITH FROSTBITE FROSTBITE a Gradually warm the casualty. • Use the same warming procedures as with chilblain. • If the feet are frostbitten, remove the casualty's boots and If socks and put his feet against the exposed abdomen of another soldier. Cover both soldiers to keep them warm. another • Do not expose the frostbitten area to extreme heat which Do could result in burns. could • Do not rub, massage, or soak the frostbitten area. a Give the casualty something warm to drink. • Do not give alcoholic beverages or tobacco products to the Do casualty. Alcohol and tobacco can promote heat loss. casualty. TREAT A CASUALTY WITH FROSTBITE FROSTBITE a a a Protect the frostbitten area from cold and additional Protect injury. injury. Evacuate the casualty to a medical treatment facility Evacuate as soon as possible. If the casualty's frozen feet must be exposed to freezing temperature during evacuation, do not thaw his feet prior to evacuation. evacuation, Question: • Suppose a soldier has a foot with deep frostbite and will Suppose have to walk to a nearby medical treatment facility. Should you warm his foot before sending him to the facility? you a Response: • No. IDENTIFY SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS OF IDENTIFY GENERALIZED HYPOTHERMIA Generalized hypothermia occurs when the whole Generalized body (rather than just a body part) is cooled to an unusually low temperature. It is a medical emergency which can result in death if not treated promptly. Generalized hypothermia is often called simply "hypothermia." "hypothermia." IDENTIFY SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS OF IDENTIFY GENERALIZED HYPOTHERMIA a a a a a Moderate Hypothermia Apathetic, lethargic behavior. Pale, cold skin. Acetone (sweet, fruity) breath odor. Shivering, which soon stops. IDENTIFY SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS OF IDENTIFY GENERALIZED HYPOTHERMIA a a a a a a a Severe Hypothermia Skin ice cold. Slow, shallow respirations. Faint, irregular pulse or lack of detectable pulse. Glassy eyes. Mental confusion. Unconsciousness. TREAT A CASUALTY WITH GENERALIZED HYPOTHERMIA GENERALIZED a a a a a Moderate Hypothermia Move the casualty out of the wind to a sheltered environment. Replace wet clothing with dry clothing or sleeping Replace bags. bags. Cover the casualty with blankets or other insulating Cover material. material. TREAT A CASUALTY WITH GENERALIZED HYPOTHERMIA GENERALIZED a Give the casualty warm, nutritious fluids to drink. • Do not give alcoholic beverages or tobacco products to the Do casualty. casualty. a Wrap the casualty from head to toe and evacuate to Wrap a medical treatment facility in a recumbent (lying down) position. down) TREAT A CASUALTY WITH GENERALIZED HYPOTHERMIA GENERALIZED a a a Severe Hypothermia Cut away wet clothing and replace with dry clothing. Ensure that the casualty's airway remains open and Ensure the casualty continues to breathe. the • Perform mouth-to-mouth resuscitation if the casualty's Perform breathing rate drops below five respirations per minute. breathing • Use J-tube if needed and the casualty is unconscious. TREAT A CASUALTY WITH GENERALIZED HYPOTHERMIA GENERALIZED a Apply an additional heat source since the casualty's Apply body cannot generate sufficient body heat to warm itself. itself. • Have another soldier remove his outer clothing and get into Have the same sleeping bag as the casualty, then covering both soldiers. The second soldier's body heat will warm the casualty's body. casualty's a Evacuate the casualty to a medical treatment facility Evacuate as soon as possible. as • Evacuate the casualty even if you cannot detect Evacuate respiration or a heartbeat. respiration • Be gentle when moving the casualty. IDENTIFY SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS OF SNOW BLINDNESS SNOW a Snow blindness is a temporary loss of sight caused Snow by ultraviolet rays from the sun reflecting off snow or ice. Snow blindness can usually be prevented by wearing regular or improvised sunglasses which cut down on the amount of ultraviolet rays which reach the eyes. the IDENTIFY SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS OF SNOW BLINDNESS SNOW a Question: • Suppose a soldier working in an ice-covered terrain says Suppose that he will not wear his sunglasses because it is cloudy? Should the soldier still wear his sunglasses? Should a Response: • Yes. Snow blindness often occurs in cloudy or hazy weather. Yes. Clouds and haze do not stop the invisible ultraviolet radiation. radiation. IDENTIFY SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS OF SNOW BLINDNESS SNOW a a a a a a Scratchy feeling in the eyes as though dirt or sand Scratchy were present in the eyes, sometimes more severe pain. pain. Decreased vision. Tears. Difficulty in opening eyelids. Headache. Pain. TREAT A CASUALTY WITH SNOW BLINDNESS SNOW a a a Cover the casualty's eyes with a dark cloth. Reassure the casualty that the condition is temporary Reassure and he will regain his sight. and Evacuate him to a medical treatment facility as soon Evacuate as practical. as COLD COLD INJURIES a Question: • Of the cold injuries discussed, which is a medical emergency Of requiring immediate treatment? requiring a Response: • Hypothermia. IDENTIFY AND TREAT COLD INJURIES COLD CLOSING Cold can be a deadly enemy. Soldiers can protect Cold themselves from this enemy by taking preventive measures. The buddy-system should be used since it may be easier to detect the early signs and symptoms of cold injury on another person than on yourself. If a soldier does become a cold injury casualty, you must be ready to recognize the problem and provide proper treatment. This lesson is tested in the written multiple-choice examination. the Questions Questions ...
View Full Document

This note was uploaded on 01/11/2012 for the course STEP 1 taught by Professor Dr.aslam during the Fall '11 term at Montgomery College.

Ask a homework question - tutors are online