1323372705_chapter1AIDS_SPR

1323372705_chapter1AIDS_SPR - EVOLUTION/LECTURE1 Evolution...

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EVOLUTION/LECTURE1 file:///C|/Wilma's%20stuff%20NEW/WSFTP/newbio/syllabus/Sp%2012/Evolution_Ortega/chapter1AIDS_SPR.html[12/7/2011 9:27:41 AM] Evolution ( PCB 4674 ). Chapter 1. A case for evolutionary thinking: Understanding HIV Main topics of lecture: I.- General background: 1.- HIV and evolutionary studies: Understanding adaptation and diversity 2.- The natural history and geography of the HIV epidemic 3.- What is HIV? 4.- How does HIV cause AIDS? II.- AIDS and evolutionary biology: 5.- Searching for a drug capable of combating AIDS. The case of AZT 6.- Why is HIV fatal? 7.- Why are some people resistant to infection by HIV? 8.- Could a vaccine provide protection from diverse strains of HIV? 9.- What, if anything, does evolutionary biology have to say about ways to stem the AIDS epidemic? I.- General background: 1.- HIV and evolutionary studies: Understanding adaptation and diversity 1.1.- Evolution is one of the most relevant scientific fields for the everyday life of all of us. The Human Immunodeficiency Virus ( HIV ) provides an excellent example of why it is important to understand evolution and its consequences. The HIV is a pathogen that causes the Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome ( AIDS ). 1.2.- HIV is a compelling case study because it raises issues that are almost certain to influence the professional and personal lives of all of us. AIDS already qualifies as one of the most devastating epidemics EVER EXPERIENCED by our species. 1.3.- Four of the major questions on AIDS demonstrate the value of evolutionary studies for all of us. These four questions are: - Why have promising AIDS treatments, like the drug azidothymidine ( AZT ), proven ineffective in the long run?
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EVOLUTION/LECTURE1 file:///C|/Wilma's%20stuff%20NEW/WSFTP/newbio/syllabus/Sp%2012/Evolution_Ortega/chapter1AIDS_SPR.html[12/7/2011 9:27:41 AM] - Why are some people resistant to becoming infected or to progressing to disease once they are infected? - Why does HIV kill people? - Could a vaccine provide protection from the diversity of HIV strains found today? 1.4.- These four questions are relevant in our course because evolutionary biology is the science devoted to understand two things: - How populations change through time in response to modifications in their environment? - How new species come into being? 1.5.- When we deal with these two questions (which are the focus of evolutionary studies) we also can answer the four major questions on AIDS 2.- The natural history and geography of the HIV epidemic 2.1.- There are about 40,000,000 people infected with HIV, and it is estimated that HIV will soon be the human epidemic responsible form most deaths of human history (Fig. 1.1) Figure 1.1.: Geographic distribution of of HIV-1 infections 2.2.- Most HIV infections result from two related but distinct epidemics that occurred during 1980s and 1990s:
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EVOLUTION/LECTURE1 file:///C|/Wilma's%20stuff%20NEW/WSFTP/newbio/syllabus/Sp%2012/Evolution_Ortega/chapter1AIDS_SPR.html[12/7/2011 9:27:41 AM]
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This note was uploaded on 01/11/2012 for the course PBC 4674 taught by Professor Ortega during the Spring '12 term at FIU.

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1323372705_chapter1AIDS_SPR - EVOLUTION/LECTURE1 Evolution...

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