1323383652_CHAPTER_5_SPR

1323383652_CHAPTER_5_SPR - EVOLUTION/LECTURE1 Evolution(PCB...

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EVOLUTION/LECTURE1 file:///E|/CH5-MUTATION-SPRING-2008/CHAPTER_5_SPR_2008.html[12/8/2011 2:29:34 PM] Evolution ( PCB 4674 ). Chapter 5. Mutations and genetic variation 1 Main topics of lecture: I: Mechanisms responsible for generating new genes and new alleles 1.- Introduction 2.- Where new alleles come from 3.- Where new genes come from II: Chromosome alterations: 4.- Inversions 5.- Polyploidy III: Measuring genetic variation in natural populations 6.- Genetic variation in natural populations: An introduction 7.- Determining genotypes using DNA 8.- How much genetic diversity exists in a typical population? I: Mechanisms responsible for generating new genes and new alleles 1.- Introduction 1.1.- Mutations are the raw material of evolution. Without mutation there are no new genes, no new alleles, and eventually no evolution. Mutation is the ultimate source of the heritable variation acted upon by natural selection and other evolutionary processes 2.- Where new alleles come from 2.1.- The instructions for making and running an organism are encoded in its heritable material: the molecule called deoxyribonucleic acid, or DNA. DNA is made of deoxyribonucleotides. Each on them contains: - 5-carbon sugar called deoxyribose - A phosphate group - A distinct nitrogen-containing base [Pyrimidines (Cytosine & Thymine) or purines (adenine & guanine) - The four deoxyribonucleotides are routinely abbreviated to C, T, A, and G depending on their distinct nitrogen bases 2.2.- Deoxyribonucleotides are linked by phosphodiester bonds that form between the
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